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Wheat Information Service
Number 75: 7-13 (1992)


Structural alterations of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in progenies of the alloplasmic wheat with rye cytoplasm

0. G. Davydenko, A. Y. Terekhov and N. S. Fomchenko

Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Byelarus Academy of Sciences Minsk, Byelarus


Summary

Comparative study of the mt and ct DNA digestion patterns with BamHI and EcoRI was carried out in alloplasmic wheat with rye cytoplasm and its progenies produced from individual selfpollinated plants and hybrids with two wheat varieties using as males. Variations of organelle DNA from maternal ones were found in hybrid progeny of the alloplasmic lines with wheat varieties as following fasions: modification both in mt and in ct DNA; modifications only in mt DNA and ct DNA of wheat type; modified ct DNA and mt DNA of the rye type and both mt and ct DNA of the wheat type. Biparental inheritance of organelle DNA was supposed. The structural alterations provides the development of wheat lines with new combination of cytoplasmic genes.


Introduction

Investigations of alloplasmic wheat lines have shown the importance of cytoplasmic genes for plant productivity (Tsunewaki 1980, Ponayotov 1983, Maan 1979). Alloplasmic lines as model systems have some limitations both for more detail study on the nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions and for application of positive cytoplasmic effects in plant breeding. The limitations are; difficulties of distinguishing between chloroplast and mitochondrial gene effects on plant characters, and impossibility of new combinations or recombinations of organelle DNAs due to their strict uniparental plasmagene inheritance.

A part of these problems can be solved by somatic hybridization (Gleba et al 1985). However, researchers are limited by choosing agricultural crops in which protoplast fusion followed by regeneration is possible.

It is known some cases of biparental inheritance of plastid genes in Antirrhinum majus (Dier 1967) and Secale cereale (Frost et al 1970) or mt DNA barley and rye hybrids (Saliman et al 1987) although normally these species have maternal inheritance of plasmagenes.

The present study is conducted to determine polymorphism of mt and ct DNA among individual hybrids and selfpollinated progenies of the alloplasmic wheat with rye cytoplasm.


Materials and methods

The materials for the present study comprised alloplasmic wheat with genome of Luteseense 62 variety and rye cytoplasm of Viatka variety -- (cereale)-Lt62, BC6, two selfpollinated lines (92 and 96) received from this population, hybrid 555 -- F6 (cereale)-Lt62 x (10D2 x Lenigradka), three lines L1, L2 and L3 received from hybrid F2 (cereale)-Lt62 x Leningradka, three lines Ld1, Ld2 and Ld3 received from hybrid F2 (cereale)-Lt62 x Ledovka. F6 seeds were used in L and Ld lines. Pedigrees of these lines described in
Table 1. Seeds of rye (Vyatka, Chulpan, Polycrossnaja, Voskhod) and wheat (Lutescens 62, Leningradka, Ledouka) varieties including parental ones were used for comparison.

For isolation of mt DNA, 5-6 day old etiolated seedlings were used (Wilson and Chourey 1984), and for that of ct DNA, 7-10 day old seedlings grown under light (Bookjans et al 1984). Purified mt DNA and ct DNA were restricted by EcoRI and BamHI, and their restriction patterns were analyzed after conducting gel-electrophoresis.

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