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Wheat Information Service
Number 75: 26-30 (1992)

An attempt to transferring stem solidity of Triticum aestivum to triticale (2n=6x=42). II. Analysis in F2-F4

S. Tsvetkov

Institute for Wheat and Sunflower, General Toshevo, Bulgaria


New winter triticale forms with solid stem were found in F2-F4 generations from the hybridization of the winter common wheat (solid stem) and triticale (2n=42) with hollow stem. This new developed triticale (2n=42) showed high resistance to Cephus pygmaeus L.


The possibility of blocking of the parasite penetration to the hostplant (Wallace and McNeal 1966) is proved by the development of winter triticale forms derived from a cross of T-AD-592 with a solid stem. By this breading program, lines with a high ento-immunity to the wheat stem fly Cephus pygmaeus L. will be bred, and the costs on the chemical control will be also saved (Tsvetkov 1982).

Materials and methods

One of the basic purposes of the complex cross T-AD-592 (MBX-11-7 x T-AD-17-B) F1 x AD-No.11 is the acquirement of hexaploid triticale with a solid stem as well as a short stem and high productivity at F2 - F4 generations of this cross. For this purpose the selection in F2 was conducted on the solid stem.

The methods used to determine the degree of solidness of the stem and the analyses of the meiosis in PMC were mentioned in the previous paper (Tsvetkov 1992). All plants at F2 - F4 populations and parents were grown under isolator for guaranteeing trueness of materials.

Results and discussion

A. Second hybrid generation (F2)
A transfer of the solid stem of Triticum aestivum into triticale (2n=6x=42) was carried out by interspecific hybridization (simple and complex cross). An interest in this project is how to combine the solid stem with plant height and the spike grain number. A number of F2 plants derived from the interspecific cross T-AD-592 (MBX-11-7 x T-AD-17-B) F1 x AD-No.11 had solid stem in all internodes and were from 50 to 110 cm in plant height (
Fig.1). Most valuable plants are the hybrid with a solid stem and 61-80 grains per spike.

Table1 shows considerable meiosis stability in the F2 hybrid with a solid stem of the cross T-AD-592 compared in F1. The average number of meiotic disturbances in F2 were 66.2%, while those in F1 were 96.8% (Tsvetkov 1992).

B. Fourth hybrid generation (F4)
Table 2 shows that solid stem of the hybrid studied in F4 is successfully with major agronomical characters, ie, a comparatively short stem, large spike, a very good grain formation and heavy grain. The average grain number of the solid-stemmed hybrid plants varies from 56 to 94 grains and the spike grain weight from 3.2 to 5.4 g, compared to 40 grains and 1.8 g of spike grain weight for Sadovo1 (winter common wheat).

The breeding value of this solid-stemmed triticale selected from the cross T-AD-592 will be evaluated against Cephus pygmaeus L. (

Table 3 indicates that both Sadovo 1 and all the hollow-stemmed foreign triticale are a high susceptibility to the attack of Cephus pygmaeus L. (from 39.0 to 54.0%). Under the same conditions, the new-developed solid- stemmed triticale showed a high resistance to this pest, that is, the damaged stem was only 2.6%.


Tsvetkov S (1982) Breeding of winter triticale (2n=6x=42) in Bulgaria. D Sc dissertation, General Toshevo, Bulgaria: 1-602.

Tsvetkov S (1992) An attempt to transferring stem solidity of Triticum aestivum ssp vulgare to triticale (2n=6x=42). I. Investigation in F1. Wheat Information Service 21-25.

Wallance LE and McNeal PH (1966) stem sawflies of economic importance in grain crops in the United States. Mo Agri Exp St In Technical Bulletin 1350: 1-49.

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