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Author Hong, S.K., H. Kitano, H. Satoh and Y. Nagato
Title How is embryo size genetically regulated in rice?
It is unclear how embryo size is genetically regulated in plants. Since cereals have a large persisting endosperm, it is expected that embryo size is affected by endosperm development. Nine single recessive mutations, four reduced embryo mutations representing three loci, REDUCED EMBRYO1, REDUCED EMBRYO2 and REDUCED EMBRYO3, four giant embryo mutations derived from a single locus GIANT EMBRYO, and one endospermless mutation endospermless1-2 were analyzed. Every reduced embryo mutation caused reduction of all the embryonic organs including apical meristems and the enlargement of the endosperm. The giant embryo mutants have a reduced endosperm and an enlarged scutellum. However, shoot and radicle sizes were not affected. All the reduced embryo and giant embryo mutations did not largely affect postembryonic development. Accordingly, the expression of genes analyzed are seed-specific. In reduced embryo and giant embryo mutations, abnormalities were detected in both embryo and endosperm as early as 2 days after pollination. endospermless1-1 resulted in an early loss of endosperm, yielding a giant embryo, suggesting that embryo growth was physically limited by the endosperm. A double mutant between giant embryo-2 and club-shaped embryo1-1, which has a normal endosperm and a minute undifferentiated embryo, resulted in a club-shaped embryo1-1 embryo and a reduced endosperm of giant embryo-2, indicating that GIANT EMBRYO regulates the endosperm development. Double mutants between giant embryo-2 and three reduced embryo mutants exhibited the reduced embryo phenotype in both embryo and endosperm, suggesting that reduced embryo mutations cause the enlarged endosperm. Further, a double mutant of reduced embryo3 and endospermless1-1 showed the enlarged embryo in endospermless seed. This confirms that reduced embryo3 does not regulate embryo size but enlarges endosperm size. Together with the results of the other double mutant analysis, REDUCED EMBRYO1, REDUCED EMBRYO2, REDUCED EMBRYO3 and GIANT EMBRYO are concluded to regulate endosperm development.
Journal Development
Country Japan
Volume 122
Pages 2051-2058.
Year 1996
PubMed ID 8681786
PubMed Central ID -
Strain Wild Core Collection -
Induced Mutation Lines(NIG Collection) -
Sterile Seed Strain -
Lethal Embryo
Mutantion Strain
Stages in Each Organ
- Muant Lines (Gene)
Cultivated Varieties(NIG Collection) -
Stages in Each Organ -