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Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol RFT1
Gene Symbol Synonym FT-L 3, OsFTL3, FT-L3, RFT, OsRFT1
Gene Name Synonym Rice Flowering-locus T 1, RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1, FT-like gene 3, RFT
Protein Name
Allele rft1-1, rft1-2, rft1
Chromosome No. 6
Explanation RFT1 encodes a major LD florigen. Q8VWH2. AB062675, AB062676. AB426870-AB426878 (O. sativa and other wild rice species).
Trait Class Reproductive organ - Heading date
Character as QTL - Yield and productivity
cDNA Accession No. AB062676
MSU ID LOC_Os06g06300.1
RAP ID Os06g0157500
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link map Classical linkage map
Fang M., Zhou Z., Zhou X., Yang H., Li M., Li H.
PeerJ 2019  7  e6422
Overexpression of <i>OsFTL10</i> induces early flowering and improves drought tolerance in <i>Oryza sativa</i> L.
Fang J., Zhang F., Wang H., Wang W., Zhao F., Li Z., Sun C., Chen F., Xu F., Chang S., Wu L., Bu Q., Wang P., Xie J., Chen F., Huang X., Zhang Y., Zhu X., Han B., Deng X., Chu C.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2019  116(37)  18717-18722
<i>Ef-cd</i> locus shortens rice maturity duration without yield penalty.
Cui Y., Zhu M., Xu Z., Xu Q.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2019  132(6)  1887-1896
Assessment of the effect of ten heading time genes on reproductive transition and yield components in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Liu B., Liu Y., Wang B., Luo Q., Shi J., Gan J., Wen-Hui Shen, Yu Y., Dong A.
Nat Commun 2019  10(1)  2999
The transcription factor OsSUF4 interacts with SDG725 in promoting H3K36me3 establishment.
Cai M., Chen S., Wu M., Zheng T., Zhou L., Li C., Zhang H., Wang J., Xu X., Chai J., Ren Y., Guo X., Zhang X., Lei C., Cheng Z., Wang J., Jiang L., Zhai H., Wang H., Zhu S., Wan J.
Plant Cell Rep. 2019  38(5)  521-532
Early heading 7 interacts with DTH8, and regulates flowering time in rice.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Wai A.H., An G.
Mol. Cells 2018  41(7)  665-675
<i>Histone Deacetylase 701 (HDT701)</i> Induces Flowering in Rice by Modulating Expression of <i>OsIDS1</i>.
Zeng L., Liu X., Zhou Z., Li D., Zhao X., Zhu L., Luo Y., Hu S.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  157
Identification of a G2-like transcription factor, OsPHL3, functions as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by co-expression and reverse genetic analysis.
Chen J.Y., Zhang H.W., Zhang H.L., Ying J.Z., Ma L.Y., Zhuang J.Y.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  112
Natural variation at qHd1 affects heading date acceleration at high temperatures with pleiotropism for yield traits in rice.
Guo S., Dai S., Singh P.K., Wang H., Wang Y., Tan J.L.H., Wee W., Ito T.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  555
A Membrane-Bound NAC-Like Transcription Factor OsNTL5 Represses the Flowering in <i>Oryza sativa</i>.
Jiang P., Wang S., Zheng H., Li H., Zhang F., Su Y., Xu Z., Lin H., Qian Q., Ding Y.
New Phytol. 2018  219(1)  422-435
SIP1 participates in regulation of flowering time in rice by recruiting OsTrx1 to Ehd1.
Kim S.R., Torollo G., Yoon M.R., Kwak J., Lee C.K., Prahalada G.D., Choi I.R., Yeo U.S., Jeong O.Y., Jena K.K., Lee J.S.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  1827
Loss-of-Function Alleles of <i>Heading date 1</i> (<i>Hd1</i>) Are Associated With Adaptation of Temperate <i>Japonica</i> Rice Plants to the Tropical Region.
He Q., Yang L., Hu W., Zhang J., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2018  8(1)  14051
Overexpression of an auxin receptor OsAFB6 significantly enhanced grain yield by increasing cytokinin and decreasing auxin concentrations in rice panicle.
Zhu C., Peng Q., Fu D., Zhuang D., Yu Y., Duan M., Xie W., Cai Y., Ouyang Y., Lian X., Wu C.
Plant Cell 2018  30(10)  2352-2367
The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Modulates Circadian Accumulation of EARLY FLOWERING3 to Control heading date in Rice under Long-Day Conditions.
Song S., Wang G., Hu Y., Liu H., Bai X., Qin R., Xing Y.
J. Exp. Bot. 2018  69(18)  4283-4293
OsMFT1 increases spikelets per panicle and delays heading date in rice by suppressing Ehd1, FZP and SEPALLATA-like genes.
Gong R., Cao H., Zhang J., Xie K., Wang D., Yu S.
Plant J. 2018  94(1)  32-47
Divergent functions of the GAGA-binding transcription factor family in rice.
Jiang P., Wang S., Jiang H., Cheng B., Wu K., Ding Y.
Plant Physiol. 2018  176(4)  2761-2771
The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice.
Wang W., Hu B., Yuan D., Liu Y., Che R., Hu Y., Ou S., Liu Y., Zhang Z., Wang H., Li H., Jiang Z., Zhang Z., Gao X., Qiu Y., Meng X., Liu Y., Bai Y., Liang Y., Wang Y., Zhang L., Li L., Sodmergen, Jing H., Li J., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2018  30(3)  638-651
Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene <i>OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3</i> Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice.
Wu W., Zhang Y., Zhang M., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Chen D., Liu Q., Sinumporn S., Hussain K., Cheng S., Cao L.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2018  495(1)  1349-1355
The RICE CONSTANS-like protein OsCOL15 suppresses flowering by promoting Ghd7 and repressing RID1.
Li C., Zhu S., Zhang H., Chen L., Cai M., Wang J., Chai J., Wu F., Cheng Z., Guo X., Zhang X., Wan J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2017  486(3)  720-725
OsLBD37 and OsLBD38, two class II type LBD proteins, are involved in the regulation of heading date by controlling the expression of Ehd1 in rice.
Wu Q., Liu X., Yin D., Yuan H., Xie Q., Zhao X., Li X., Zhu L., Li S., Li D.
BMC Plant Biol. 2017  17(1)  166
Constitutive expression of OsDof4, encoding a C2-C2 zinc finger transcription factor, confesses its distinct flowering effects under long- and short-day photoperiods in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Brambilla V., Martignago D., Goretti D., Cerise M., Somssich M., de Rosa M., Galbiati F., Shrestha R., Lazzaro F., Simon R., Fornara F.
Plant Cell 2017  29(11)  2801-2816
Antagonistic Transcription Factor Complexes Modulate the Floral Transition in Rice.
Liu K., Yu Y., Dong A., Shen W.H.
New Phytol. 2017  215(2)  609-623
SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.
Du A., Tian W., Wei M., Yan W., He H., Zhou D., Huang X., Li S., Ouyang X.
Mol Plant 2017  10(7)  948-961
The DTH8-Hd1 module Mediates Day-Length-Dependent Regulation of Rice Flowering.
Wu W., Zheng X.M., Chen D., Zhang Y., Ma W., Zhang H., Sun L., Yang Z., Zhao C., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Fu Y., Zhu S., Cao L., Cheng S.
Plant Sci. 2017  260  60-69
OsCOL16, encoding a CONSTANS-like protein, represses flowering by up-regulating Ghd7 expression in rice.
Song S., Chen Y., Liu L., Wang Y., Bao S., Zhou X., Teo Z.W., Mao C., Gan Y., Yu H.
Plant Cell 2017  29(3)  491-507
OsFTIP1-Mediated Regulation of Florigen Transport in Rice Is Negatively Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Like Domain Kinase OsUbDKgamma4.
Zhu S., Wang J., Cai M., Zhang H., Wu F., Xu Y., Li C., Cheng Z., Zhang X., Guo X., Sheng P., Wu M., Wang J., Lei C., Wang J., Zhao Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.
J. Exp. Bot. 2017  68(3)  553-568
The OsHAPL1-DTH8-Hd1 complex functions as the transcription regulator to repress heading date in rice.
Tan J., Wu F., Wan J.
Plant Signal Behav 2017  12(1)  e1267893
Flowering time regulation by the CONSTANS-like gene OsCOL10.
Deng L., Li L., Zhang S., Shen J., Li S., Hu S., Peng Q., Xiao J., Wu C.
PLoS Genet. 2017  13(2)  e1006642
Suppressor of RID1 (SID1) shares common targets with RID1 on florigen genes to initiate floral transition in rice.
Sun X., Zhang Z., Wu J., Cui X., Feng D., Wang K., Xu M., Zhou L., Han X., Gu X., Lu T.
PLoS Genet. 2016  12(3)  e1005927
The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Pasriga R., An G.
Plant Physiol. 2016  170(4)  2159-71
Homodimerization of Ehd1 Is Required to Induce Flowering in Rice.
Tan J., Jin M., Wang J., Wu F., Sheng P., Cheng Z., Wang J., Zheng X., Chen L., Wang M., Zhu S., Guo X., Zhang X., Liu X., Wang C., Wang H., Wu C., Wan J.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2016  57(4)  798-812
OsCOL10, a CONSTANS-like Gene, Functions as a flowering time Repressor Downstream of Ghd7 in Rice.
Bai B., Zhao J., Li Y., Zhang F., Zhou J., Chen F., Xie X.
Plant Sci. 2016  247  25-34
OsBBX14 delays heading date by repressing florigen gene expression under long and short-day conditions in rice.
Jeong H.J., Yang J., Cho L.H., An G.
Plant Cell Rep. 2016  35(4)  905-20
OsVIL1 controls flowering time in rice by suppressing OsLF under short days and by inducing Ghd7 under long days.
Li S., Yue W., Wang M., Qiu W., Zhou L., Shou H.
Front Plant Sci 2016  7  465
Mutation of OsGIGANTEA Leads to Enhanced Tolerance to Polyethylene Glycol-Generated Osmotic Stress in Rice.
Du Y., He W., Deng C., Chen X., Gou L., Zhu F., Guo W., Zhang J., Wang T.
PLoS ONE 2016  11(3)  e0150458
Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates flowering time and Yield Potential by Affecting histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).
Sheng P., Wu F., Tan J., Zhang H., Ma W., Chen L., Wang J., Wang J., Zhu S., Guo X., Wang J., Zhang X., Cheng Z., Bao Y., Wu C., Liu X., Wan J.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2016  92(1-2)  209-22
A CONSTANS-like transcriptional activator, OsCOL13, functions as a negative regulator of flowering downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1 in rice.
Wang J., Wu F., Zhu S., Xu Y., Cheng Z., Wang J., Li C., Sheng P., Zhang H., Cai M., Guo X., Zhang X., Wang C., Wan J.
FEBS Lett. 2016   
Overexpression of OsMYB1R1-VP64 fusion protein increases grain yield in rice by delaying flowering time.
Liu H., Gu F., Dong S., Liu W., Wang H., Chen Z., Wang J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016  479(2)  173-178
CONSTANS-like 9 (COL9) delays the flowering time in Oryza sativa by repressing the Ehd1 pathway.
Zhang L., Li Q., Dong H., He Q., Liang L., Tan C., Han Z., Yao W., Li G., Zhao H., Xie W., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2015  5  7663
Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice.
Kim S.K., Park H.Y., Jang Y.H., Lee K.C., Chung Y.S., Lee J.H., Kim J.K.
Planta 2015   
OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice.
Yang Y., Fu D., Zhu C., He Y., Zhang H., Liu T., Li X., Wu C.
Plant Cell 2015   
The RING-Finger Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Mediates heading date 1 Degradation during Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
Fan T., Li X., Yang W., Xia K., Ouyang J., Zhang M.
PLoS ONE 2015  10(5)  e0125833
Rice osa-miR171c Mediates Phase Change from Vegetative to Reproductive Development and shoot apical meristem Maintenance by Repressing Four OsHAM Transcription Factors.
Jin J., Shi J., Liu B., Liu Y., Huang Y., Yu Y., Dong A.
Plant Physiol. 2015   
MRG702, a reader protein of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, is involved in brassinosteroid-regulated growth and flowering time control in rice.
Tamaki S., Tsuji H., Matsumoto A., Fujita A., Shimatani Z., Terada R., Sakamoto T., Kurata T., Shimamoto K.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015  112(8)  E901-10
FT-like proteins induce transposon silencing in the shoot apex during floral induction in rice.
Gao H., Jin M., Zheng X.M., Chen J., Yuan D., Xin Y., Wang M., Huang D., Zhang Z., Zhou K., Sheng P., Ma J., Ma W., Deng H., Jiang L., Liu S., Wang H., Wu C., Yuan L., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014   
Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.
Yokoo T., Saito H., Yoshitake Y., Xu Q., Asami T., Tsukiyama T., Teraishi M., Okumoto Y., Tanisaka T.
PLoS ONE 2014  9(4)  e96064
Se14, encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, plays key roles in long-day suppression of rice flowering through the demethylation of H3K4me3 of RFT1.
Liu D., Cai X.
J Integr Plant Biol 2013  55(9)  876-87
OsRRMh, a Spen-like Gene, Plays an Important Role during the Vegetative to Reproductive Transition in Rice.
Ogiso-Tanaka E., Matsubara K., Yamamoto S., Nonoue Y., Wu J., Fujisawa H., Ishikubo H., Tanaka T., Ando T., Matsumoto T., Yano M.
PLoS ONE 2013  8(10)  e75959
Natural Variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 Contributes to flowering time Divergence in Rice.
Yang Y., Peng Q., Chen G.X., Li X.H., Wu C.Y.
Mol Plant 2013  6(1)  202-15
OsELF3 is Involved in Circadian Clock Regulation for Promoting Flowering under Long-Day Conditions in Rice.
Naeem M.a c, Freed S.b, Quan Z.G.a
Int J Agric Biol 2013  15  631-639
Molecular genetic studies of heading date gene OsMADS50 by using single segment substitution lines in Oryza sativa
Wu W., Zheng X.M., Lu G., Zhong Z., Gao H., Chen L., Wu C., Wang H.J., Wang Q., Zhou K., Wang J.L., Wu F., Zhang X., Guo X., Cheng Z., Lei C., Lin Q., Jiang L., Wang H., Ge S., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013  110(8)  2775-80
Association of functional nucleotide polymorphisms at DTH2 with the northward expansion of rice cultivation in Asia.
Gao H., Zheng X.M., Fei G., Chen J., Jin M., Ren Y., Wu W., Zhou K., Sheng P., Zhou F., Jiang L., Wang J., Zhang X., Guo X., Wang J.L., Cheng Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.M.
PLoS Genet. 2013  9(2)  e1003281
Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Sun C., Fang J., Zhao T., Xu B., Zhang F., Liu L., Tang J., Zhang G., Deng X., Chen F., Qian Q., Cao X., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2012  24(8)  3235-47
The histone methyltransferase SDG724 Mediates H3K36me2/3 Deposition at MADS50 and RFT1 and Promotes Flowering in Rice.
Endo-Higashi N. , Izawa T.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2011  52(6)  1083-94
Flowering Time Genes Heading date 1 and Early heading date 1 Together Control Panicle Development in Rice.
Li C., Huang L., Xu C., Zhao Y., Zhou D.X.
PLoS ONE 2011  6(7)  e21789
Altered levels of histone deacetylase OsHDT1 affect differential gene expression patterns in hybrid rice.
Ebana K,Shibaya T,Wu J,Matsubara K,Kanamori H,Yamane H,Yamanouchi U,Mizubayashi T,Kono I,Shomura A,Ito S,Ando T,Hori K,Matsumoto T,Yano M
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011  122(6)  1199-210
Uncovering of major genetic factors generating naturally occurring variation in heading date among Asian rice cultivars.
Li W., Han Y., Tao F., Chong K.
J. Plant Physiol. 2011  168(15)  1837-43
Knockdown of SAMS genes encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthetases causes methylation alterations of DNAs and histones and leads to late flowering in rice.
Hagiwara,W.E., Uwatoko,N., Sasaki,A., Matsubara,K., Nagano,H., Onishi,K. and Sano,Y.
Mol. Ecol. 2009  18(7)  1537-49
Diversification in flowering time due to tandem FT-like gene duplication, generating novel Mendelian factors in wild and cultivated rice
Komiya R., Yokoi S., Shimamoto K.
Development 2009  136(20)  3443-50
A gene network for long-day flowering activates RFT1 encoding a mobile flowering signal in rice.
Park SJ,Kim SL,Lee S,Je BI,Piao HL,Park SH,Kim CM,Ryu CH,Park SH,Xuan YH,Colasanti J,An G,Han CD
Plant J. 2008  56  1018-29
Rice Indeterminate 1 (OsId1) is necessary for the expression of Ehd1 (Early heading date 1) regardless of photoperiod.
Komiya R,Ikegami A,Tamaki S,Yokoi S,Shimamoto K
Development 2008  135  767-74
Hd3a and RFT1 are essential for flowering in rice.
Faure S, Higgins J, Turner A, Laurie DA.
Genetics 2007  176(1)  599-609
The FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare).
Chardon F., Damerval C.
J. Mol. Evol. 2005  61(5)  579-90
Phylogenomic analysis of the PEBP gene family in cereals.
Ishikawa R., Tamaki S., Yokoi S., Inagaki N., Shinomura T., Takano M., Shimamoto K.
Plant Cell 2005  17(12)  3326-36
Suppression of the floral activator Hd3a is the principal cause of the night break effect in rice.
Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T. and Yano, M.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2002  43  1096-1105
Izawa, T., T. Oikawa, N. Sugiyama, T. Tanisaka, M. Yano and K. Shimamoto
Genes Dev. 2002  16  2006-2020
Phytochrome mediates the external light signal to repress FT orthologs in photoperiodic flowering of rice.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for RFT1 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID -
Gene Ontology nucleus( GO:0005634 )
regulation of flower development( GO:0009909 )
inflorescence development( GO:0010229 )
cell differentiation( GO:0030154 )
cytoplasm( GO:0005737 )
flower development( GO:0009908 )
regulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase( GO:0048510 )
photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048573 )
regulation of long-day photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048586 )
Trait Ontology days to heading( TO:0000137 )
filled grain number( TO:0000447 )
yield trait( TO:0000371 )
Plant Ontology -
Related Strains
Phenotype images
Last updated
Jan 28, 2020