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Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol XA21
Gene Symbol Synonym Xa21*, Xa21, OsXA21
Gene Name Synonym Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae resistance 21, Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae resistance-21, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae resistance-21, Xanthomonas resistance 21
Protein Name
Chromosome No. 11
Explanation Xa21 confers resistance to diverse races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and encodes a receptor-like kinase with leucine-rich repeats in the extra-cellular domain.(20627) U72723, U72724, U72725, U72726, U72727, U72728, U72729, U82168. GO:1903428: positive regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process. GO:0140426: PAMP-triggered immunity signalling pathway. TO:0000993: cellulose content.
Trait Class Tolerance and resistance - Disease resistance
Tolerance and resistance - Stress tolerance
cDNA Accession No. -
MSU ID LOC_Os11g35500.1
RAP ID Os11g0559200
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link to INSD Accession List
Locate(cM) 104.0
Link map Classical linkage map
Zhu Z., Wang T., Lan J., Ma J., Xu H., Yang Z., Guo Y., Chen Y., Zhang J., Dou S., Yang M., Li L., Liu G.
Rice (N Y) 2022  15(1)  41
Rice MPK17 Plays a Negative Role in the Xa21-Mediated Resistance Against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Moon H., Jeong A.R., Kwon O.K., Park C.J.
Front Plant Sci 2022  13  859375
<i>Oryza</i>-Specific Orphan Protein Triggers Enhanced Resistance to <i>Xanthomonas oryzae</i> pv. <i>oryzae</i> in Rice.
Liu S., Wang T., Meng G., Liu J., Lu D., Liu X., Zeng Y.
Front Plant Sci 2022  13  1055277
Cytological observation and transcriptome analysis reveal dynamic changes of <i>Rhizoctonia solani</i> colonization on leaf sheath and different genes recruited between the resistant and susceptible genotypes in rice.
Dwivedi S.L., Reynolds M.P., Ortiz R.
iScience 2021  24(9)  102965
Mitigating tradeoffs in plant breeding.
Chen T.C., Chern M., Steinwand M., Ruan D., Wang Y., Isharani A., Ronald P.
Plant Commun 2021  2(4)  100215
Paladin, a tyrosine phosphatase-like protein, is required for <i>XA21</i>-mediated immunity in rice.
Shamsunnaher, Chen X., Zhang X., Wu X.X., Huang X., Song W.Y.
Sci Rep 2020  10(1)  16938
Rice immune sensor XA21 differentially enhances plant growth and survival under distinct levels of drought.
Tang J., Wang Y., Yin W., Dong G., Sun K., Teng Z., Wu X., Wang S., Qian Y., Pan X., Qian Q., Chu C.
Plant Physiol. 2019  181(3)  1295-1313
Mutation of a Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Immune Receptor-Type Protein Disrupts Immunity to Bacterial Blight.
C H B., S BN., V AK., G H., H K MS., Sk H., T DK., M A., R R K., A Y., K P., M B V N K., K S., V P B., A S H., G S L., G R., S M B., M S M., P S., A R F., B C V., A G., B P M S., Ali J., R M S.
PLoS ONE 2018  13(10)  e0201271
Marker-assisted pyramiding of two major, broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa33 into an elite maintainer line of rice, DRR17B.
Caddell D.F., Park C.J., Thomas N.C., Canlas P.E., Ronald P.C.
Rice (N Y) 2017  10(1)  23
Silencing of the Rice Gene LRR1 Compromises Rice XA21 transcript Accumulation and XA21-Mediated Immunity.
Kang J., Li J., Gao S., Tian C., Zha X.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2017   
Overexpression of the leucine-rich receptor-like kinase gene LRK2 increases drought tolerance and tiller number in rice.
Park C.J., Wei T., Sharma R., Ronald P.C.
Rice (N Y) 2017  10(1)  27
Overexpression of Rice auxilin-like protein, XB21, Induces Necrotic Lesions, up-Regulates Endocytosis-Related Genes, and Confers Enhanced Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Akamatsu A., Shimamoto K., Kawano Y.
Curr. Genomics 2016  17(4)  297-307
Crosstalk of Signaling Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense and Symbiosis Against Microorganisms in Rice.
Zhou X., Wang J., Peng C., Zhu X., Yin J., Li W., He M., Wang J., Chern M., Yuan C., Wu W., Ma W., Qin P., Ma B., Wu X., Li S., Ronald P., Chen X.
Plant Cell Environ. 2015   
Four receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases regulate development and immunity in rice.
Hu H., Wang J., Shi C., Yuan C., Peng C., Yin J., Li W., He M., Wang J., Ma B., Wang Y., Li S., Chen X.
Rice (N Y) 2015  8(1)  34
A receptor like kinase gene with expressional responsiveness on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is essential for Xa21-mediated disease resistance.
Zuo S., Zhou X., Chen M., Zhang S., Schwessinger B., Ruan D., Yuan C., Wang J., Chen X., Ronald P.C.
J Integr Plant Biol 2014   
OsSERK1 regulates rice development but not immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Magnaporthe oryzae.
Chen X., Zuo S., Schwessinger B., Chern M., Canlas P.E., Ruan D., Zhou X., Wang J., Daudi A., Petzold C.J., Heazlewood J.L., Ronald P.C.
Mol Plant 2014  7(5)  874-92
An XA21-Associated Kinase (OsSERK2) Regulates Immunity Mediated by the XA21 and XA3 Immune Receptors.
Jiang Y., Chen X., Ding X., Wang Y., Chen Q., Song W.Y.
Plant J. 2013  73(5)  814-23
The XA21 binding protein XB25 is required for maintaining XA21-mediated disease resistance.
Yang B., Ruan R., Cantu D., Wang X., Ji W., Ronald P.C., Dubcovsky J.
Genome 2013  56(6)  315-26
A comparative approach expands the protein-protein interaction node of the immune receptor XA21 in wheat and rice.
Sama V.S.A.K., Himabindu K., Naik S.B., Sundaram R.M., Viraktamath B.C., Bentur J.S.
Euphytica 2012  187  393-400
Mapping and marker-assisted breeding of a gene allelic to the major Asian rice gall midge resistance gene Gm8
Huang B., Xu J.Y., Hou M.S., Ali J., Mou T.M.
Euphytica 2012  187  449-459
Introgression of bacterial blight resistance genes Xa7, Xa21, Xa22 and Xa23 into hybrid rice restorer lines by molecular marker-assisted selection
Xu J., Jiang J., Dong X., Ali J., Mou T.
Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2012  11(33)  8225-8233
Introgression of bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes Xa7 and Xa21 into popular restorer line and their hybrids by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection scheme
Park C.J., Ronald P.C.
Nat Commun 2012  3  920
Cleavage and nuclear localization of the rice XA21 immune receptor.
Salgotra R.K., Gupta B.B., Millwood R.J., Balasubramaniam M., Stewart Jr.
Euphytica 2012  187(3)  313-323
Introgression of bacterial leaf blight resistance and aroma genes using functional marker-assisted selection in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Wu Q., Hou M.M., Li L.Y., Liu L.J., Hou Y.X., Liu G.Z.
Journal of Plant Pathology 2011  93  455-459
Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins in rice bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21-mediated interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Rajpurohit D., Kumar R., Kumar M., Paul P., Awasthi A., Osman Basha P., Puri A., Jhang T., Singh K., Dhaliwal H.S.
Euphytica 2011  178  111-126
Pyramiding of two bacterial blight resistance and a semidwarfing gene in Type 3 Basmati using marker-assisted selection
Lee I., Seo Y.S., Coltrane D., Hwang S., Oh T., Marcotte E.M., Ronald P.C.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011  108(45)  18548-53
Genetic dissection of the biotic stress response using a genome-scale gene network for rice.
Chang-Jin Park, Sang-Wook Han, Chen X., Pamela C Ronald
Cell. Microbiol. 2010  12(8)  1017-25
Elucidation of Xa21-mediated innate immunity.
Kishimoto K., Kouzai Y., Kaku H., Shibuya N., Minami E., Nishizawa Y.
Plant J. 2010  64(2)  343-354
Perception of the chitin oligosaccharides contributes to disease resistance to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice.
Chang-Jin Park, Bart R., Chern M., Patrick E Canlas, Bai W., Pamela C Ronald
PLoS ONE 2010  5(2)  e9262
Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP3 regulates XA21-mediated innate immunity in rice.
Chen X., Chern M., Patrick E Canlas, Ruan D., Jiang C., Pamela C Ronald
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010  107(17)  8029-34
An ATPase promotes autophosphorylation of the pattern recognition receptor XA21 and inhibits XA21-mediated immunity.
Rebecca S Bart, Chern M., Miguel E Vega-Sánchez, Canlas P., Pamela C Ronald
PLoS Genet. 2010  6(9)  e1001123
Rice Snl6, a cinnamoyl-CoA reductase-like gene family member, is required for NH1-mediated immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Chen X., Chern M., Patrick E Canlas, Jiang C., Ruan D., Cao P., Pamela C Ronald
J. Biol. Chem. 2010  285(14)  10454-63
A conserved threonine residue in the juxtamembrane domain of the XA21 pattern recognition receptor is critical for kinase autophosphorylation and XA21-mediated immunity.
Peng Y., Laura E Bartley, Chen X., Dardick C., Chern M., Ruan R., Patrick E Canlas, Pamela C Ronald
Mol Plant 2008  1(3)  446-58
OsWRKY62 is a negative regulator of basal and Xa21-mediated defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.
Park CJ,Peng Y,Chen X,Dardick C,Ruan D,Bart R,Canlas PE,Ronald PC
PLos Biol. 2008  6  e231
Rice XB15, a protein phosphatase 2C, negatively regulates cell death and XA21-mediated innate immunity.
Zhang J., Li X., Jiang G., Xu Y., He Y.
Plant Breeding 2006  125(6)  600-605
Pyramiding of Xa7 and Xa21 for the improvement of disease resistance to bacterial blight in hybrid rice
Nino-Liu, D.O., P.C. Ronald and A.J. Bogdanove
Mol. Plant Pathol. 2006  7(5)  303-324
Pathogen profile Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars: model pathogens of a model crop.
Wang,Y.S., Pi,L.Y., Chen,X., Chakrabarty,P.K., Jiang,J., A.L., Liu,G.Z., Li,L., Benny,U., Oard,J., Ronald,P.C. and Song,W.Y.
Plant Cell 2006  18(12)  3635-3646
Rice XA21 Binding Protein 3 Is a Ubiquitin Ligase Required for Full Xa21-Mediated Disease Resistance
Chern,M., Canlas,P.E., Fitzgerald,H.A. and Ronald,P.C.
Plant J. 2005  43(5)  623-635
Rice NRR, a negative regulator of disease resistance, interacts with Arabidopsis NPR1 and rice NH1.
M A Campbell, P C Ronald
Mol. Plant Pathol. 2005  6(1)  11-21
Characterization of four rice mutants with alterations in the defence response pathway.
Zhai, W., C. Chen, X. Zhu, X. Chen, D. Zhang, X. Li and L. Zhu
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2004  109 (3)  534-542
Analysis of T-DNA-Xa21 loci and bacterial blight resistance effects of the transgene Xa21 in transgenic rice.
Wang, G.L., C. Wu, L. Zeng, C. He, M. Baraoidan, Assis Goes da Silva, C.E. Williams, P.C. Ronald, H. Leung
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2004  108  379-384
Isolation and characterization of rice mutants compromised in Xa21-mediated resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.
Lu, G., C. Jantasuriyarat, B. Zhou, G.L. Wang
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2004  108  525-534
Isolation and characterization of novel defense response genes involved in compatible and incompatible interaction between rice and Magnaporthe grisea.
Muralidharan, K., D. Krishnaveni, G.S. Laha, C.S. Reddy, M. Srinivasprasad and R. Sridhar
RGN 2003  20  96-98
Appraisal of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in India.
Tu, J., K. Datta, G.S. Khush, Q. Zhang and S.K. Datta
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2000  101  15-20
Field performance of Xa21 transgenic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.), IR72.
Z He, Z Y Wang, J Li, Q Zhu, C Lamb, P Ronald, J Chory
Science 2000  288(5475)  2360-3
Perception of brassinosteroids by the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1.
Century, K.S., R.A. Lagman, M. Adkisson, J. Morlan, R. Tobias, K. Schwartz, A. Smith, J. Love, P.C. Ronald and M.C. Whalen
Plant J. 1999  20 (2)  231-236
Developmental control of Xa21-mediated disease resistance in rice.
Song,W.Y., Pi,L.Y., Bureau,T.E. and Ronald,P.C.
Mol. Gen. Genet. 1998  258(5)  449-456
Identification and characterization of 14 transposon-like elements in the noncoding regions of members of the Xa21 family of disease resistance genes in rice
Tu, J., I. Ona, Q. Zhang, T.W. Mew, G.S. Khush and S.K. Datta
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1998  97  31-36.
Transgenic rice variety 'IR72' with Xa21 is resistant to bacterial blight.
Song,W.Y., Pi,L.Y., Wang,G.L., Gardner,J., Holsten,T. and Ronald,P.C.
Plant Cell 1997  9(8)  1279-1287
Evolution of the rice Xa21 disease resistance gene family.
Ronald, P.C.
Plant Mol. Biol. 1997  35  179-186.
The molecular basis of disease resistance in rice.
Brar, D.S. and Khush, G.S.
Plant Mol. Biol. 1997  35  35-47
Alien introgression in rice.
Huang, N., E.R. Angeles, J. Domingo, G. Magpantay, S. Singh, G. Zhang, N. Kumaravadivel, J. Bennett and G.S. Khush
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1997  95  313-320.
Pyramiding of bacterial blight resistance genes in rice marker-assisted selection using RFLP and PCR.
Williams, C.E., B. Wang, T.E. Holsten, J. Scambray, F. de Assis Goes da Silva and P.C. Ronald
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1996  93  1119-1122.
Markers for selection of the rice Xa21 disease resistance gene.
Blair, M.W. and S.R. McCouch
Rice Genetics III. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1996    582-589.
Development of diagnostic markers for the bacterial blight resistance gene, xa5.
Ronald, P., W.-Y. Song, G.-L. Wang, L.-L. Chen, H.-S. Kim, L.-Y. Pi, T. Holsten, B. Wang, C. Williams, W.-X. Zhai, L.-H. Zhu and C. Fauquet
Rice Genetics III. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1996    247-253.
The rice disease resistance gene, Xa21, encodes a receptor kinase-like protein.
Nelson, R.J., E. Ardales, M. Baraoidan, I. Yap, M.L.C. George, D.H. Chen, M. Finckh, A. Bordeos, C.M. Vera Cruz, T. Adhikari, C.C. Mundt, M. Bustamam, W. Cruz, H. Leung, N. Huang, A. Yoshimura, S. McCouch, T.W. Mew and J.E. Leach
Rice Genetics III. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1996    267-277.
Exploring the application of molecular markers for improving resistance to bacterial blight.
Jiang, J., B.S. Gill, G.-L. Wang, P.C. Ronald and D.C. Ward
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995  92  4487-4491.
Metaphase and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the rice genome with bacterial artificial chromosomes.
Song,W.-Y., Wang,G.-L., Chen,L.-L., Kim,H.-S., Pi,L.-Y., Holsten,T., Wang,G.B., Zhai,W.-X., Zhu,L.-H., Fauquet,C. and Ronald,P.
Science 1995  270(5243)  1804-1806
A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the rice disease resistance gene, Xa21.
Causse, M.A., T.M. Fulton, Y.G. Cho, S.N. Ahn, J. Chunwongse, K. Wu, J. Xiao, Z. Yu, P.C. Ronald, S.E. Harrington, G. Second, S.R. McCouch and S.D. Tanksley
Genetics 1994  138  1251-1274.
Saturated molecular map of the rice genome based on an interspecific backcross population.
Ronald, P.C., T. Holsten, J. Scambray, W. Song, G. Wang and C. Williams
In Rice Blast Disease. R.S. Zeigler et al. (eds.), C.A.B. International, Wallingford, UK. 1994    187-194.
Molecular genetic analysis of the rice bacterial blight resistance.
Abenes, M.L.P., R.E. Tabien, S.R. McCouch, R. Ikeda, P. Ronald, G.S. Khush and N. Huang
Euphytica 1994  76  81-87.
Orientation and integration of the classical and molecular genetic maps of chromosome 11 in rice.
Tanksley, S.D., T.M. Fulton and S.R. McCouch
Genetic Maps, Locus Maps of Complex Genomes, Plants. S.J. O'Brien ed. Cold Spring Harbour Lab. Press. 1993  Book 6  61-79.
Linkage map of rice (Oryza sativa) (2N=24).
Ronald, P.C., B. Albano, R. Tabien, L. Abenes, K. Wu, S. McCouch and S.D. Tanksley
Mol. Gen. Genet. 1992  236  113-120.
Genetic and physical analysis of the rice bacterial blight disease resistance locus, Xa21.
Ronald, P.C. and S.D. Tanksley
RGN 1991  8  142-143.
Genetic and physical mapping of the bacterial blight resistance gene Xa-21.
Ikeda, R., R.E. Tabien and G.S. Khush
RGN 1991  8  102-103.
Chromosomal location of Xa-21.
Khush, G.S., E. Bacalangco and T. Ogawa
RGN 1990  7  121-122.
A new gene for resistance to bacterial blight from O.longistaminata.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for XA21 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0061029
Gene Ontology defense response to fungus( GO:0050832 )
response to water deprivation( GO:0009414 )
respiratory burst during defense response( GO:0002679 )
protein ubiquitination( GO:0016567 )
protein kinase activity( GO:0004672 )
protein amino acid phosphorylation( GO:0006468 )
protein serine/threonine kinase activity( GO:0004674 )
protein binding( GO:0005515 )
ATP binding( GO:0005524 )
cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle( GO:0016023 )
secretion by cell( GO:0032940 )
defense response to bacterium( GO:0042742 )
Trait Ontology bacterial blight disease resistance( TO:0000175 )
drought tolerance( TO:0000276 )
osmotic adjustment capacity( TO:0000507 )
lignin content( TO:0000731 )
vascular tissue related trait( TO:0000470 )
sheath blight disease resistance( TO:0000255 )
Plant Ontology -
Related Strains
Stocks for Genes 1
Phenotype images
Last updated
Jul 18, 2023