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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol WX1
Gene Symbol Synonym wx (Wx(am)), Wx, WX-B, GBSS-I, GBSS, OsGBSSI, GBSS1, OsGBSS1, GBSSI, GSS , OsWx
Gene Name Synonym glutinous endosperm, waxy, Waxy, WAXY, "Granule-bound starch synthase 1, chloroplastic/amyloplastic", Granule-bound starch synthase I, UDP-glycogen synthase, "Granule-bound starch synthase, chloroplast precursor", glycogen [starch] synthase, Granule-bound glycogen synthase, UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase, uridine diphosphoglucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase, glycogen [starch] synthetase, Granule-bound glycogen [starch] synthase, UDPG-glycogen synthetase, granule bound starch synthase I, granule-bound starch synthase 1, granule-bound starch synthase I
Allele wx-op, Wx-in, Wx-a(Wx), Wx-b(wx), Wx-mq, Wx-hp, Wx1-1(Wx-oz: Hokkai287), Wx-I, Wx-II, Wx-III , Wxa, Web, GBSSIL
Chromosome No. 6
Explanation White and non-translucent endosperm. Brown to the iodine staining. EC= X58228. A2Y8X2(indica). P0C585. Q0DEV5(japonica). EU871049(Wx-hp:haopi), AB535524(Wx-oz:Hokkai287), AB008794(Wx-b:Taichung65), AB008795(Wx-a:Patpaku). X53694, AF515480, AF515481, AF515482, AF515483, AF031162, AP002542, AF141954, AF141955, X65183, X64108, AB066093, X62134, AF488413. HQ712158-HQ712165. AY136767-AY136784. AF092443, AF092444. AB281428-AB281462. DQ280600-DQ280604, DQ280606-DQ280609, DQ280611-DQ280623, DQ280625-DQ280632, DQ280634-DQ280637, DQ280640-DQ280646, DQ280648-DQ280671, DQ280672-DQ280675, AB066094, DQ415640. GU727213-GU727295 (O.sativa and other wild rice species). FJ811412-FJ811452 (Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza nivara). EF600036 (O. australiensis), EF600037 (O. rufipogon). DQ901803-DQ901832 (wild rice species). EF069974-EF070045 (O. sativa and wild rice species). JQ415868-JQ415911 (wild rice species). X86325 (indica, 5' upstream). KJ871342-KJ871345 (indica, includes exon 1 and intron 1). HQ712163. a candidate gene for qK6.1 (QTL for K concentration). GO:1901698: response to nitrogen compound.
Trait Class Biochemical character
Tolerance and resistance - Stress tolerance
Seed - Physiological traits - Dormancy
Seed - Physiological traits - Storage substances
cDNA Accession No. AK070431
MSU ID LOC_Os06g04200.1
RAP ID Os06g0133000
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link to INSD Accession List
Locate(cM) 22.0
Link map Classical linkage map
Tonosaki K., Ono A., Kunisada M., Nishino M., Nagata H., Sakamoto S., Kijima S.T., Furuumi H., Nonomura K.I., Sato Y., Ohme-Takagi M., Endo M., Comai L., Hatakeyama K., Kawakatsu T., Kinoshita T.
Plant Cell 2021  33(1)  85-103
Mutation of the imprinted gene OsEMF2a induces autonomous endosperm development and delayed cellularization in rice.
Ali I., Ullah S., Iqbal A., Quan Z., Liang H., Ahmad S., Muhammad I., Amanullah, Imran, Guo Z., Wei S., Jiang L.
BMC Plant Biol. 2021  21(1)  600
Combined application of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer promotes the activity of starch metabolism enzymes and the expression of related genes in rice in a dual cropping system.
Cu S.T., Warnock N.I., Pasuquin J., Dingkuhn M., Stangoulis J.
Sci Rep 2021  11(1)  19230
A high-resolution genome-wide association study of the grain ionome and agronomic traits in rice Oryza sativa subsp. indica.
Liu X., Luo J., Li T., Yang H., Wang P., Su L., Zheng Y., Bao C., Zhou C.
Rice (N Y) 2021  14(1)  25
SDG711 Is Involved in Rice Seed Development through Regulation of Starch Metabolism Gene Expression in Coordination with Other Histone Modifications.
Park J.R., Kim E.G., Jang Y.H., Kim K.M.
BMC Plant Biol. 2021  21(1)  263
Screening and identification of genes affecting grain quality and spikelet fertility during high-temperature treatment in grain filling stage of rice.
Zhang H., Jang S.G., Lar S.M., Lee A.R., Cao F.Y., Seo J., Kwon S.W.
Plants (Basel) 2021  10(6) 
Genome-Wide Identification and Genetic Variations of the starch synthase Gene Family in Rice.
Baysal C., He W., Drapal M., Villorbina G., Medina V., Capell T., Khush G.S., Zhu C., Fraser P.D., Christou P.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2020  117(42)  26503-26512
Inactivation of rice starch branching enzyme IIb triggers broad and unexpected changes in metabolism by transcriptional reprogramming.
Paul P., Dhatt B.K., Miller M., Folsom J.J., Wang Z., Krassovskaya I., Liu K., Sandhu J., Yu H., Zhang C., Obata T., Staswick P., Walia H.
Plant Physiol. 2020  182(2)  933-948
<i>MADS78</i> and <i>MADS79</i> Are Essential Regulators of Early Seed Development in Rice.
Chen C., He B., Liu X., Ma X., Liu Y., Yao H.Y., Zhang P., Yin J., Wei X., Koh H.J., Yang C., Xue H.W., Fang Z., Qiao Y.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2019   
Pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP1) regulates starch biosynthesis and seed development via heterotetramer formation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Fan C., Wang G., Wang Y., Zhang R., Wang Y., Feng S., Luo K., Peng L.
Int J Mol Sci 2019  20(20) 
sucrose synthase Enhances Hull Size and grain weight by Regulating Cell Division and Starch Accumulation in Transgenic Rice.
Wang W., Wei X., Jiao G., Chen W., Wu Y., Sheng Z., Hu S., Xie L., Wang J., Tang S., Hu P.
J Integr Plant Biol 2019   
GBSS-binding protein, encoding a CBM48 domain-containing protein, affects rice quality and yield.
Lee H.S., Hwang W.H., Jeong J.H., Ahn S.H., Baek J.S., Jeong H.Y., Park H.K., Ku B.I., Yun J.T., Lee G.H., Choi K.J.
BMC Genomics 2019  20(1)  18
Analysis of the distribution of assimilation products and the characteristics of transcriptomes in rice by submergence during the ripening stage.
Zhao Q., Feng Q., Lu H., Li Y., Wang A., Tian Q., Zhan Q., Lu Y., Zhang L., Huang T., Wang Y., Fan D., Zhao Y., Wang Z., Zhou C., Chen J., Zhu C., Li W., Weng Q., Xu Q., Wang Z.X., Wei X., Han B., Huang X.
Nat. Genet. 2018  50(2)  278-284
Pan-genome analysis highlights the extent of genomic variation in cultivated and wild rice.
Long W., Wang Y., Zhu S., Jing W., Wang Y., Ren Y., Tian Y., Liu S., Liu X., Chen L., Wang D., Zhong M., Zhang Y., Hu T., Zhu J., Hao Y., Zhu X., Zhang W., Wang C., Zhang W., Wan J.
Plant Physiol. 2018  177(2)  698-712
FLOURY shrunken endosperm1 Connects Phospholipid Metabolism and Amyloplast Development in Rice.
Wang W., Mauleon R., Hu Z., Chebotarov D., Tai S., Wu Z., Li M., Zheng T., Fuentes R.R., Zhang F., Mansueto L., Copetti D., Sanciangco M., Palis K.C., Xu J., Sun C., Fu B., Zhang H., Gao Y., Zhao X., Shen F., Cui X., Yu H., Li Z., Chen M., Detras J., Zhou Y., Zhang X., Zhao Y., Kudrna D., Wang C., Li R., Jia B., Lu J., He X., Dong Z., Xu J., Li Y., Wang M., Shi J., Li J., Zhang D., Lee S., Hu W., Poliakov A., Dubchak I., Ulat V.J., Borja F.N., Mendoza J.R., Ali J., Li J., Gao Q., Niu Y., Yue Z., Naredo M.E.B., Talag J., Wang X., Li J., Fang X., Yin Y., Glaszmann J.C., Zhang J., Li J., Hamilton R.S., Wing R.A., Ruan J., Zhang G., Wei C., Alexandrov N., McNally K.L., Li Z., Leung H.
Nature 2018  557(7703)  43-49
Genomic variation in 3,010 diverse accessions of Asian cultivated rice.
Huang X., Peng X., Xie F., Mao W., Chen H., Sun M.X.
New Phytol. 2018  218(2)  463-469
The stereotyped positioning of the generative cell associated with vacuole dynamics is not required for male gametogenesis in rice pollen.
Wang L., Yuan J., Ma Y., Jiao W., Ye W., Yang D.L., Yi C., Chen Z.J.
Mol Plant 2018  11(2)  300-314
Rice Interploidy Crosses Disrupt Epigenetic Regulation, Gene Expression, and Seed Development.
Crofts N., Sugimoto K., Oitome N.F., Nakamura Y., Fujita N.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2017  94(4-5)  399-417
Differences in specificity and compensatory functions among three major starch synthases determine the structure of amylopectin in rice endosperm.
Wambugu P., Ndjiondjop M.N., Furtado A., Henry R.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2017   
Sequencing of bulks of segregants allows dissection of genetic control of amylose content in rice.
Jiang S., Sun S., Bai L., Ding G., Wang T., Xia T., Jiang H., Zhang X., Zhang F.
PLoS ONE 2017  12(7)  e0181037
Resequencing and variation identification of whole genome of the japonica rice variety "Longdao24" with high yield.
Pu C.X., Han Y.F., Zhu S., Song F.Y., Zhao Y., Wang C.Y., Zhang Y.C., Yang Q., Wang J., Bu S.L., Sun L.J., Zhang S.W., Zhang S.Q., Sun D.Y., Sun Y.
Plant Cell 2017  29(1)  70-89
The Rice Receptor-Like Kinases DWARF AND RUNTISH SPIKELET1 and 2 Repress Cell Death and Affect Sugar Utilization during Reproductive Development.
Kim J.S., Chae S., Jun K.M., Pahk Y.M., Lee T.H., Chung P.J., Kim Y.K., Nahm B.H.
Rice (N Y) 2017  10(1)  16
Genome-wide identification of grain filling genes regulated by the OsSMF1 transcription factor in rice.
Li L.F., Li Y.L., Jia Y., Caicedo A.L., Olsen K.M.
Nat. Genet. 2017  49(5)  811-814
Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome.
Xu E., Chen M., He H., Zhan C., Cheng Y., Zhang H., Wang Z.
Front Plant Sci 2016  7  2006
Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.
Zhou W., Wang X., Zhou D., Ouyang Y., Yao J.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2016   
Overexpression of the 16-kDa alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor RAG2 improves grain yield and quality of rice.
Zhou H., Wang L., Liu G., Meng X., Jing Y., Shu X., Kong X., Sun J., Yu H., Smith S.M., Wu D., Li J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016   
Critical roles of soluble starch synthase SSIIIa and granule-bound starch synthase Waxy in synthesizing resistant starch in rice.
Ordonio R.L., Matsuoka M.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016   
Increasing resistant starch content in rice for better consumer health.
Su J., Hu C., Yan X., Jin Y., Chen Z., Guan Q., Wang Y., Zhong D., Jansson C., Wang F., Schnürer A., Sun C.
Nature 2015  523(7562)  602-6
Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice.
Wu Y.P., Pu C.H., Lin H.Y., Huang H.Y., Huang Y.C., Hong C.Y., Chang M.C., Lin Y.R.
Plant Sci. 2015  233  44-52
Three novel alleles of FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 (flo2) confer dull grains with low amylose content in rice.
Liu D., Wang W., Cai X.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2014   
Modulation of amylose content by structure-based modification of OsGBSS1 activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Fujita N.
AGri-Bioscience Monographs 2014  4(1)  1-18
Starch Biosynthesis in Rice Endosperm
Pusadee,T., Oupkaew,P., Rerkasem,B., Jamjod,S. and Schaal,B.
Ann. Appl. Biol. 2014   
Natural and Human Mediated Selection in a Landrace of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Liu S.J., Xu H.H., Wang W.Q., Li N., Wang W.P., Møller IM., Song S.Q.
Physiol Plant 2014   
A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.
Choudhury B.I., Khan M.L., Dayanandan S.
BMC Genet. 2014  15  71
Patterns of nucleotide diversity and phenotypes of two domestication related genes (OsC1 and Wx) in indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India.
Wang J.C., Xu H., Zhu Y., Liu Q.Q., Cai X.L.
J. Exp. Bot. 2013  64(11)  3453-66
OsbZIP58, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, regulates starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm.
Liu D.R., Huang W.X., Cai X.L.
Plant Sci. 2013  210  141-50
Oligomerization of rice granule-bound starch synthase 1 modulates its activity regulation.
Huang X., Zhao Y., Wei X., Li C., Wang A., Zhao Q., Li W., Guo Y., Deng L., Zhu C., Fan D., Lu Y., Weng Q., Liu K., Zhou T., Jing Y., Si L., Dong G., Huang T., Lu T., Feng Q., Qian Q., Li J., Han B.
Nat. Genet. 2012  44(1)  32-9
Genome-wide association study of flowering time and grain yield traits in a worldwide collection of rice germplasm.
Lu F.H., Park Y.J.
J. Cereal Sci. 2012  56  706-712
An SNP downstream of the OsBEIIb gene is significantly associated with amylose content and viscosity properties in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Lu F.H., Park Y.J.
Genet Res (Camb) 2012  94  179-189
Sequence variations in OsAGPase significantly associated with amylose content and viscosity properties in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Wei X., Qiao W.H., Chen Y.T., Wang R.S., Cao L.R., Zhang W.X., Yuan N.N., Li Z.C., Zeng H.L., Yang Q.W.
Mol. Ecol. 2012  21(20)  5073-87
Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon.
Ozawa K., Wakasa Y., Ogo Y., Matsuo K., Kawahigashi H., Takaiwa F.
Plant and Cell Physiology 2012  53  755-761
Development of an efficient agrobacterium-mediated gene targeting system for rice and analysis of rice knockouts lacking granule-bound starch synthase (Waxy) and beta1,2-xylosyltransferase
Momma M., Fujimoto Z.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2012  76(8)  1591-5
Interdomain Disulfide Bridge in the Rice Granule Bound Starch Synthase I Catalytic Domain as Elucidated by X-Ray Structure Analysis.
Ai,B., Wang,Z.S. and Ge,S.
Evolution 2012  66(10)  3302-3310
Genome size is not correlated with effective population size in the oryza species
Tran N.A., Daygon V.D., Resurreccion A.P., Cuevas R.P., Corpuz H.M., Fitzgerald M.A.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011  123(4)  519-25
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy gene explains a significant component of gel consistency.
Sun,M.M., Abdula,S.E., Lee,H.J., Cho,Y.C., Han,L.Z., Koh,H.J. and Cho,Y.G.
PLoS One 2011  6 (4)  e18385
Molecular aspect of good eating quality formation in japonica rice
Li,Z.M., Zheng,X.M. and Ge,S.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011  123(1)  21-31
Genetic diversity and domestication history of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) as inferred from multiple gene sequences
Li C., Wang Y., Liu L., Hu Y., Zhang F., Mergen S., Wang G., Schläppi MR., Chu C.
PLoS Genet. 2011  7(7)  e1002196
A rice plastidial nucleotide sugar epimerase is involved in galactolipid biosynthesis and improves photosynthetic efficiency.
Yu,G., Olsen,K.M. and Schaal,B.A.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 2011  28(1)  659-671
Molecular Evolution of the Endosperm Starch Synthesis Pathway Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Its Wild Ancestor, O. rufipogon L
Yan CJ,Tian ZX,Fang YW,Yang YC,Li J,Zeng SY,Gu SL,Xu CW,Tang SZ,Gu MH
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011  122(1)  63-76
Genetic analysis of starch paste viscosity parameters in glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Zheng,X.M. and Ge,S.
Mol. Ecol. 2010  19(12)  2439-2454
Ecological divergence in the presence of gene flow in two closely related Oryza species (Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara)
Ikuo Ando, Hiroyuki Sato, Noriaki Aoki, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Hideyuki Hirabayashi, Makoto Kuroki, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Tsuyu Ando and Yoshinobu Takeuchi
Breeding Science 2010  60  187-194
Genetic analysis of the low-amylose characteristics of rice cultivars Oborozuki and Hokkai-PL9
Liu L, Ma X, Liu S, Zhu C, Jiang L, Wang Y, Shen Y, Ren Y, Dong H, Chen L, Liu X, Zhao Z, Zhai H, Wan J.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2009  71  609-26
Identification and characterization of a novel Waxy allele from a Yunnan rice landrace.
Shapter,F.M., Eggler,P., Lee,L.S. and Henry,R.J.
J. Cereal Sci. 2009  49(1)  4-11
Variation in Granule Bound Starch Synthase I (GBSSI) loci amongst Australian wild cereal relatives (Poaceae)
Tian,Z., Qian,Q., Liu,Q., Yan,M., Liu,X., Yan,C., Liu,G., Gao,Z., Tang,S., Zeng,D., Wang,Y., Yu,J., Gu,M. and Li,J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009  106(51)  21760-5
Allelic diversities in rice starch biosynthesis lead to a diverse array of rice eating and cooking qualities
Konishi S,Ebana K,Izawa T
Plant Cell Physiol. 2008  49  1283-93
Inference of the japonica rice domestication process from the distribution of six functional nucleotide polymorphisms of domestication-related genes in various landraces and modern cultivars.
Isshiki M., Matsuda Y., Takasaki A., Hann Ling Wong, Satoh H., Shimamoto K.
Plant Biotechnology 2008  25(5)  483-487
du3, a mRNA cap-binding protein gene, regulates amylose content in Japonica rice seeds
Mikami,I., Uwatoko,N., Ikeda,Y., Yamaguchi,J., Hirano,H.Y., Suzuki,Y. and Sano,Y.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2008  116(7)  979-989
Allelic diversification at the wx locus in landraces of Asian rice
Wang LQ,Liu WJ,Xu Y,He YQ,Luo LJ,Xing YZ,Xu CG,Zhang Q
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2007  115  463-76
Genetic basis of 17 traits and viscosity parameters characterizing the eating and cooking quality of rice grain.
Perata, Pierdomenico
Plant Physiol. 2007  144(1)  218-231
Transcript Profiling of the Anoxic Rice Coleoptile.
Hori Y,Fujimoto R,Sato Y,Nishio T
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2007  115  217-24
A novel wx mutation caused by insertion of a retrotransposon-like sequence in a glutinous cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa).
Zeng D, Yan M, Wang Y, Liu X, Qian Q, Li J.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2007  65(4)  501-9
Du1, encoding a novel Prp1 protein, regulates starch biosynthesis through affecting the splicing of Wxb pre-mRNAs in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Zhu,Q., Zheng,X., Luo,J., Gaut,B.S. and Ge,S.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 2007  24(3)  875-888
Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of Oryza sativa and its wild relatives: severe bottleneck during domestication of rice
Zhang,L.B. and Ge,S.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 2007  24(3)  769-783
Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation and speciation in Oryza officinalis and its close relatives
Fujita N,Yoshida M,Kondo T,Saito K,Utsumi Y,Tokunaga T,Nishi A,Satoh H,Park JH,Jane JL,Miyao A,Hirochika H,Nakamura Y
Plant Physiol. 2007  144  2009-23
Characterization of SSIIIa-deficient mutants of rice: the function of SSIIIa and pleiotropic effects by SSIIIa deficiency in the rice endosperm.
Bao JS, Corke H, Sun M.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2006  113(7)  1185-96
Microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms and a sequence tagged site in starch-synthesizing genes in relation to starch physicochemical properties in nonwaxy rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Bao JS, Corke H, Sun M.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2006  113(7)  1171-83
Nucleotide diversity in starch synthase IIa and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to starch gelatinization temperature and other physicochemical properties in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Olsen,K.M., Caicedo,A.L., Polato,N., McClung,A., McCouch,S.R. and Purugganan,M.D.
Genetics 2006  173(2)  975-983
Selection under Domestication: Evidence for a Sweep in the Rice Waxy Genomic Region
Hirose T, Terao T.
Planta. 2004  220(1)  9-16
A comprehensive expression analysis of the starch synthase gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Itoh, K., H. Ozaki, K. Okada, H. Hori, Y. Takeda and T. Mitsui
Plant Cell Physiol. 2003  44  473-480
Introduction of Wx transgene into rice wx mutants leads to both high- and low-amylose rice.
Sato, Y. and T. Nishio
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2003  107  560-567
Mutation detection in rice waxy mutants by PCR-RF-SSCP.
Larkin,P.D. and Park,W.D.
Molecular Breeding 2003  12  335-339
Association of waxy gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with starch characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Zhu,Y., Cai,X.L., Wang,Z.Y. and Hong,M.M.
J. Biol. Chem. 2003  278(48)  47803-47811
An interaction between a MYC protein and an EREBP protein is involved in transcriptional regulation of the rice Wx gene.
Sato,H., Suzuki,Y., Sakai,M. and Imbe,T.
Breeding Science 2002  52(2)  131-135
Molecular Characterization of Wx-mq, a Novel Mutant Gene for Low-amylose Content in Endosperm of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Suzuki Y., SANO Y., Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Euphytica 2002  123  95-100
Isolation and characterization of a rice mutant insensitive to cool temperatures on amylose synthesis
Olsen,K.M. and Purugganan,M.D.
Genetics 2002  162(2)  941-950
Molecular Evidence on the Origin and Evolution of Glutinous Rice.
Isshiki M, Yamamoto Y, Satoh H, Shimamoto K.
Plant Physiol. 2001  125(3)  1388-1395
Nonsense-mediated decay of mutant waxy mRNA in rice.
Terada, R., M. Nakajima, M. Isshiki, R.J. Okagaki, S.R. Wessler and K. Shimamoto
Plant Cell Physiol. 2000  41  881-888.
Antisense Waxy gene with highly active promoters effectively suppress Waxy gene expression in transgenic rice.
Isshiki, M., M. Nakajima, H. Satoh and K. Shimamoto
Plant J. 2000  23 (4)  451-460
dull: rice mutants with tissue-specific effects on the splicing of the waxy pre-mRNA.
Tan, Y.F., J.X. Li, S.B. Yu, Y.Z, Xing, C.G. Xu and Q. Zhang
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1999  99  642-648
The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63.
Larkin,P.D. and Park,W.D.
Plant Mol. Biol. 1999  40(4)  719-727
Transcript accumulation and utilization of alternate and non-consensus splice sites in rice granule-bound starch synthase are temperature-sensitive and controlled by a single-nucleotide polymorphism.
He, P., S.G. Li, Q. Qian, Y.Q. Ma, J.Z. Li, W.M. Wang, Y. Chen and L.H. Zhu
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1999  98  502-508
Genetic analysis of rice grain quality.
RGN 1999  16 
Rice EPSP synthase gene resides 45-kb downstream of the Waxy gene
Nagano. H., S. Kawasaki, Y. Kishima and Y. Sano
Breeding Science 1998  48(Suppl. 2)  47
Conservation of the rice wx locus among plant genomes and comparison with the transcriptional map.
Hirano,H.Y., Eiguchi,M. and Sano,Y.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 1998  15(8)  978-987
A single base change altered the regulation of the Waxy gene at the posttranscriptional level during the domestication of rice.
Frances,H., Bligh,J., Larkin,P.D., Roach,P.S., Jones,C.A., Fu,H. and Park,W.D.
Plant Mol. Biol. 1998  38(3)  407-415
Use of alternate splice sites in granule-bound starch synthase mRNA from low-amylose rice varieties.
Isshiki, M., K. Morino, M. Nakajima, R.J. Okagaki, S.R. Wessler, T. Izawa and K. Shimamoto
Plant J. 1998  15(1)  133-138
A naturally occurring functional allele of the rice waxy locus has a GT to TT mutation at the 5' splice site of the first intron.
Cai, X.L., Z.Y. Wang, Y.Y. Xing, J.L. Zhang and M.M. Hong
Plant J. 1998  14(4)  459-465
Aberrant splicing of intron 1 leads to the heterogeneous 5'UTR and decreased expression of waxy gene in rice cultivars of intermediate amylose content.
Hirano, H. and Y. Sano
Plant Cell Physiol. 1998  39  807-812.
Enhancement of Wx gene expression and the accumulation of amylose in response to cool temperatures during seed development in rice.
Sako, A., H. Nagano, T. Inukai and Y. Sano
Breeding Science 1998  48(Suppl. 2)  330
Molecular characterization of mutations induced by gamma rays and EMS treatments at the rice wx locus.
Kishima, Y. and Y. Sano
Recent Advances in Breeding 1998  40  69-72.
Structural characterization based on the physical map of the rice BAC clones and its applications.
Inukai, T., A. Sako, Y. Kishima and Y. Sano
Breeding Science 1998  48(Suppl. 1)  15
Intragenic recombination at the wx locus in rice.
Mikami, I., H. Nagano, H. Hirano and Y. Sano
Breeding Science 1997  47(Suppl. 1)  308
Tissue specific expression of opaque endosperm (WxOP) mutants in rice.
Nagano, H., L. Wu, S. Kawasaki, Y. Kishima and Y. Sano
RGN 1997  14  121-123.
Construction of a 300-kb BAC contig containing waxy locus in Japonica rice.
Itoh, K., M. Nakajima and K. Shimamoto
Mol. Gen. Genet. 1997  255  351-358.
Silencing of waxy genes in rice containing Wx transgenes.
Ayres, N.M., A.M. McClung, P.D. Larkin, H.F.J. Bligh, C.A. Jones and W.D. Park
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1997  94  773-781.
Microsatellites and a single-nucleotide polymorphism differentiate apparent amylose classes in an extended pedigree of US rice germ plasm.
Itoh, K. and K. Shimamoto
Breeding Science 1997  47(Suppl. 1)  113
Gene silencing at the waxy gene of rice.
Hirano, H.-Y., M. Eiguchi, M, Matsumoto and Y. Sano
Breeding Science 1996  46(Suppl. 1)  50
Analysis of expression of the rice Wx gene by transient assay system -- Identification of the sequence element responsible for the difference in the expression level of Wxa and Wxb.
Hirano, H-Y., M. Eiguchi and Y. Sano
RGN 1996  13  148-149.
A point mutation, G to T, causes the differentiation of the Wxb allele from Wxa allele, which is specific to Japonica rice.
Mikami, I., H. Nagano, M. Eiguchi, H.-Y. Hirano and Y. Sano
RGN 1996  13  134-136.
Genetic characterization of opaque endosperms.
Ma,H., Zhu,X.P., Lou,X.M., Chen,L. and Zhang,J.
Yi Chuan Xue Bao 1995  22  353-360
Construction and transient expression of a chimeric gene consisting of 5' upstream region of Wx gene and coding region of GUS gene in Rice developing seeds
Morino, K., M. Issiki, M. Nakajima, T. Izawa and K. Shimamoto
Breeding Science 1995  45(Suppl. 2)  40
Regulation of waxy gene expression in rice l.Is Wxb gene a splicing mutant ?
Z Y Wang, F Q Zheng, G Z Shen, J P Gao, D P Snustad, M G Li, J L Zhang, M M Hong
Plant J. 1995  7(4)  613-22
The amylose content in rice endosperm is related to the post-transcriptional regulation of the waxy gene.
Bligh, H.F.J., R.I. Till and C.A. Jones
Euphytica 1995  86  83-85.
A microsatellite sequence closely linked to the Waxy gene of Oryza sativa.
Wang,Z.Y., Zheng,F.Q., Gao,J.P., Wang,X.Q., Wu,M., Zhang,J.L. and Hong,M.M.
Sci. China, Ser. B, Chem. Life Sci. Earth Sci. 1994  37  437-447
Identification of two transposon-like elements in rice Wx gene
Li, T., T. Takano, Y. Nagamura and G. Takeda
RGN 1994  11  109-111.
Linkage analysis of rice lactate dehydrogenase gene.
Causse, M.A., T.M. Fulton, Y.G. Cho, S.N. Ahn, J. Chunwongse, K. Wu, J. Xiao, Z. Yu, P.C. Ronald, S.E. Harrington, G. Second, S.R. McCouch and S.D. Tanksley
Genetics 1994  138  1251-1274.
Saturated molecular map of the rice genome based on an interspecific backcross population.
Li, T., T. Takano, Y. Nagamura and G. Takeda
Breeding Science 1994  44(Suppl. 1)  19
Characterization and RFLP mapping of rice lactate dehydrogenase gene.
Ideta, O., A. Yoshimura, T. Matsumoto, H. Tsunematsu, H. Saito and N. Iwata
RGN 1993  10  87-89.
Integration of conventional and RFLP linkage maps in rice.II. Choromosomes 6, 9, 10 and 11.
Tanksley, S.D., T.M. Fulton and S.R. McCouch
Genetic Maps, Locus Maps of Complex Genomes, Plants. S.J. O'Brien ed. Cold Spring Harbour Lab. Press. 1993  Book 6  61-79.
Linkage map of rice (Oryza sativa) (2N=24).
Plant Mol. Biol. 1992  19(3)  513-516
Nucleotide sequence of a long cDNA from the rice waxy gene.
Hirano,H.Y. and Sano,Y.
Plant Cell Physiol. 1991  32(7)  989-997
Molecular characterisation of the waxy locus of rice
Sano, Y., H.Y. Hirano and M. Nishimura
Rice Genetics. II. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1991    11-20.
Evolutionary significance of differential regulation at the wx locus of rice.
Wang,Z.Y., Wu,Z.L., Xing,Y.Y., Zheng,F.G., Guo,X.L., Zhang,W.G. and Hong,M.M.
Nucleic Acids Res. 1990  18(19)  5898
Nucleotide sequence of rice waxy gene.
Heu, M.H. and Y.K. Kim
S. Iyama and G. Takeda (eds.), Proc. 6th Internat. Congress of SABRAO. 1989  I  321-324.
Inheritance of an opaque endosperm derived from Nepal Indica rice cultivar POKHARELI MASHINO.
Satoh, H. and T. Omura
Rice Genetics. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1986    707-717.
Mutagenesis in rice by treating fertilized egg cells with nitroso compounds.
Sano, Y.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1984  68  467-473.
Differential regulation of waxy gene expression in rice endosperm.
Kinoshita, T.
In Biology of Rice. S. Tsunoda and N. Takahashi eds. JSSP/Elsevier, Tokyo. 1984    187-274.
Gene analysis and linkage map.
Nagao, S. and M. Takahashi
J. Fac. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 1963  53(1)  72-130.
Trial construction of twelve linkage groups in Japanese rice. (Genetical studies on rice plant, XXVII).
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for WX1 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0061010
Gene Ontology response to heat( GO:0009408 )
inflorescence development( GO:0010229 )
chloroplast( GO:0009507 )
starch metabolic process( GO:0005982 )
starch synthase activity( GO:0009011 )
amyloplast( GO:0009501 )
glycogen (starch) synthase activity( GO:0004373 )
amyloplast starch grain( GO:0009568 )
starch biosynthetic process( GO:0019252 )
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase activity( GO:0033840 )
seed germination( GO:0009845 )
plastid( GO:0009536 )
response to water( GO:0009415 )
response to salt stress( GO:0009651 )
seed development( GO:0048316 )
response to flooding( GO:0009413 )
Trait Ontology glutinous endosperm( TO:0000098 )
amylose content( TO:0000196 )
seed quality( TO:0000162 )
water stress trait( TO:0000237 )
salt tolerance( TO:0006001 )
seed development trait( TO:0000653 )
submergence sensitivity( TO:0000286 )
inflorescence development trait( TO:0000621 )
heat tolerance( TO:0000259 )
nitrogen sensitivity( TO:0000011 )
Plant Ontology seed( PO:0009010 )
0 seed germination stage( PO:0007057 )
endosperm( PO:0009089 )
seed development stage( PO:0001170 )
seed imbibition stage( PO:0007022 )
inflorescence development stage( PO:0001083 )
seed maturation stage( PO:0007632 )
Related Strains
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Last updated
Jun 6, 2022