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Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol HD3A
Gene Symbol Synonym Hd3a, FT, qHD3(t)*, FT-L 2, OsFTL2, FT-L2, FTL2, OsHd3a
Gene Name Synonym heading date 3A, Heading date-3a, Heading date (QTL)-3(t), Flowering locus T, FT-like gene 2
Protein Name HD3A PROTEIN
Allele hd3a, hd3a-1, hd3a-2, hd3a-3
Chromosome No. 6
Explanation PEBP (Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein) Gene Family. PO:0006318; floret (sense Poaceae. GRO:0007048; 04-stem elongation stage ; GRO:0007044; 06-heading stage ; GRO:0007045; 09-mature grain stage. ortholog of Arabidopsis FT. Q93WI9. AB052941, AB052942, AB052943, AB052944. JN594212-JN594326 (O.sativa and other wild rice species). AB062675. AB426880-AB426888 (O. sativa and other wild rice species). GU727015-GU727061 (wild rice species). KM043287-KM043383 (O.sativa and other wild rice species). GO:1901698: response to nitrogen compound.
Trait Class Reproductive organ
Reproductive organ - Heading date
Character as QTL - Yield and productivity
cDNA Accession No. AB052943
MSU ID LOC_Os06g06320.1
RAP ID Os06g0157700
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link to INSD Accession List
Link map Classical linkage map
Shim Y., Lim C., Seong G., Choi Y., Kang K., Paek N.C.
Plant Cell Environ. 2022  45(8)  2446-2459
The AP2/ERF transcription factor LATE FLOWERING SEMI-DWARF suppresses long-day-dependent repression of flowering.
Shin W.J., Nam A.H., Kim J.Y., Kwak J.S., Song J.T., Seo H.S.
Plant Sci. 2022  320  111278
Intronic long noncoding RNA, RICE FLOWERING ASSOCIATED (RIFLA), regulates OsMADS56-mediated flowering in rice.
Zhao C., Zhu M., Guo Y., Sun J., Ma W., Wang X.
Plants (Basel) 2022  11(12) 
Genomic Survey of <i>PEBP</i> Gene Family in Rice: Identification, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Profiles in Organs and under Abiotic Stresses.
Lu Y., Xu Y., Li N.
Rice (N Y) 2022  15(1)  11
Early Domestication History of Asian Rice Revealed by Mutations and Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Genealogies.
Cai Z., Zhang Y., Tang W., Chen X., Lin C., Liu Y., Ye Y., Wu W., Duan Y.
Front Plant Sci 2022  13  853042
LUX ARRHYTHMO Interacts With ELF3a and ELF4a to Coordinate Vegetative Growth and Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
Sun C., Zhang K., Zhou Y., Xiang L., He C., Zhong C., Li K., Wang Q., Yang C., Wang Q., Chen C., Chen D., Wang Y., Liu C., Yang B., Wu H., Chen X., Li W., Wang J., Xu P., Wang P., Fang J., Chu C., Deng X.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2021  19(8)  1644-1657
Dual function of clock component OsLHY sets critical day length for photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Liang L., Zhang Z., Cheng N., Liu H., Song S., Hu Y., Zhou X., Zhang J., Xing Y.
Plant Cell Environ. 2021  44(3)  842-855
The transcriptional repressor OsPRR73 links circadian clock and photoperiod pathway to control heading date in rice.
Qu L., Chu Y.J., Lin W.H., Xue H.W.
PLoS Genet. 2021  17(12)  e1009905
A secretory Phospholipase D hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to suppress rice heading time.
Cerise M., Giaume F., Galli M., Khahani B., Lucas J., Podico F., Tavakol E., Parcy F., Gallavotti A., Brambilla V., Fornara F.
New Phytol. 2021  229(1)  429-443
OsFD4 promotes the rice floral transition via florigen activation complex formation in the shoot apical meristem.
Yoon H., Shim Y., Yoo S.C., Kang K., Paek N.C.
Int J Mol Sci 2021  22(3) 
The Rice CHD3/Mi-2 Chromatin Remodeling Factor Rolled Fine Striped Promotes Flowering Independent of Photoperiod.
Zhang S., Zhang Y., Li K., Yan M., Zhang J., Yu M., Tang S., Wang L., Qu H., Luo L., Xuan W., Xu G.
Curr. Biol. 2021  31(4)  671-683.e5
Nitrogen Mediates flowering time and Nitrogen Use Efficiency via Floral Regulators in Rice.
Du K., Luo Q., Yin L., Wu J., Liu Y., Gan J., Dong A., Shen W.H.
Nat Commun 2020  11(1)  5717
OsChz1 acts as a histone chaperone in modulating chromatin organization and genome function in rice.
Geng Y., Zhang P., Liu Q., Wei Z., Riaz A., Chachar S., Gu X.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2020  18(2)  325-327
Rice homolog of Sin3-associated polypeptide 30, OsSFL1, mediates histone deacetylation to regulate flowering time during short days.
Shen C., Liu H., Guan Z., Yan J., Zheng T., Yan W., Wu C., Zhang Q., Yin P., Xing Y.
Plant Cell 2020  32(11)  3469-3484
Structural Insight into DNA Recognition by CCT/NF-YB/YC Complexes in Plant Photoperiodic Flowering.
Cui Y., Cheng J., Ruan S., Qi P., Liu W., Bian H., Ye L., Zhang Y., Hu J., Dong G., Guo L., Zhang Y., Qian Q., Hu X.
J Integr Plant Biol 2020  62(12)  1839-1852
The heterochronic gene Oryza sativa LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 modulates miR156b/c/i/e levels.
Osnato M., Matias-Hernandez L., Aguilar-Jaramillo AE., Kater M.M., Pelaz S.
Plant Physiol. 2020  183(4)  1663-1680
Genes of the <i>RAV</i> Family Control Heading Date and Carpel Development in Rice.
Fang M., Zhou Z., Zhou X., Yang H., Li M., Li H.
PeerJ 2019  7  e6422
Overexpression of <i>OsFTL10</i> induces early flowering and improves drought tolerance in <i>Oryza sativa</i> L.
Fang J., Zhang F., Wang H., Wang W., Zhao F., Li Z., Sun C., Chen F., Xu F., Chang S., Wu L., Bu Q., Wang P., Xie J., Chen F., Huang X., Zhang Y., Zhu X., Han B., Deng X., Chu C.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2019  116(37)  18717-18722
<i>Ef-cd</i> locus shortens rice maturity duration without yield penalty.
Cui Y., Zhu M., Xu Z., Xu Q.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2019  132(6)  1887-1896
Assessment of the effect of ten heading time genes on reproductive transition and yield components in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Liu B., Liu Y., Wang B., Luo Q., Shi J., Gan J., Wen-Hui Shen, Yu Y., Dong A.
Nat Commun 2019  10(1)  2999
The transcription factor OsSUF4 interacts with SDG725 in promoting H3K36me3 establishment.
Cai M., Chen S., Wu M., Zheng T., Zhou L., Li C., Zhang H., Wang J., Xu X., Chai J., Ren Y., Guo X., Zhang X., Lei C., Cheng Z., Wang J., Jiang L., Zhai H., Wang H., Zhu S., Wan J.
Plant Cell Rep. 2019  38(5)  521-532
Early heading 7 interacts with DTH8, and regulates flowering time in rice.
Yang R., Li P., Mei H., Wang D., Sun J., Yang C., Hao L., Cao S., Chu C., Hu S., Song X., Cao X.
Mol Plant 2019   
Fine-Tuning of miR528 Accumulation Modulates Flowering Time in Rice.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Wai A.H., An G.
Mol. Cells 2018  41(7)  665-675
<i>Histone Deacetylase 701 (HDT701)</i> Induces Flowering in Rice by Modulating Expression of <i>OsIDS1</i>.
Jiang P., Wang S., Jiang H., Cheng B., Wu K., Ding Y.
Plant Physiol. 2018  176(4)  2761-2771
The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice.
Zhao Q., Feng Q., Lu H., Li Y., Wang A., Tian Q., Zhan Q., Lu Y., Zhang L., Huang T., Wang Y., Fan D., Zhao Y., Wang Z., Zhou C., Chen J., Zhu C., Li W., Weng Q., Xu Q., Wang Z.X., Wei X., Han B., Huang X.
Nat. Genet. 2018  50(2)  278-284
Pan-genome analysis highlights the extent of genomic variation in cultivated and wild rice.
Wu W., Zhang Y., Zhang M., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Chen D., Liu Q., Sinumporn S., Hussain K., Cheng S., Cao L.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2018  495(1)  1349-1355
The RICE CONSTANS-like protein OsCOL15 suppresses flowering by promoting Ghd7 and repressing RID1.
Wang W., Hu B., Yuan D., Liu Y., Che R., Hu Y., Ou S., Liu Y., Zhang Z., Wang H., Li H., Jiang Z., Zhang Z., Gao X., Qiu Y., Meng X., Liu Y., Bai Y., Liang Y., Wang Y., Zhang L., Li L., Sodmergen, Jing H., Li J., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2018  30(3)  638-651
Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene <i>OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3</i> Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice.
Guo S., Dai S., Singh P.K., Wang H., Wang Y., Tan J.L.H., Wee W., Ito T.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  555
A Membrane-Bound NAC-Like Transcription Factor OsNTL5 Represses the Flowering in <i>Oryza sativa</i>.
Jiang P., Wang S., Zheng H., Li H., Zhang F., Su Y., Xu Z., Lin H., Qian Q., Ding Y.
New Phytol. 2018  219(1)  422-435
SIP1 participates in regulation of flowering time in rice by recruiting OsTrx1 to Ehd1.
Hong Y., Zhang Y., Sinumporn S., Yu N., Zhan X., Shen X., Chen D., Yu P., Wu W., Liu Q., Cao Z., Zhao C., Cheng S., Cao L.
Plant J. 2018   
Premature leaf senescence 3, encoding a methyltransferase, is required for melatonin biosynthesis in rice.
Kaneko-Suzuki M., Kurihara-Ishikawa R., Okushita-Terakawa C., Kojima C., Nagano-Fujiwara M., Ohki I., Tsuji H., Shimamoto K., Taoka K.I.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2018  59(3)  458-468
TFL1-Like Proteins in Rice Antagonize Rice FT-Like Protein in Inflorescence Development by Competition for Complex Formation with 14-3-3 and FD.
He Q., Yang L., Hu W., Zhang J., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2018  8(1)  14051
Overexpression of an auxin receptor OsAFB6 significantly enhanced grain yield by increasing cytokinin and decreasing auxin concentrations in rice panicle.
Kim S.R., Torollo G., Yoon M.R., Kwak J., Lee C.K., Prahalada G.D., Choi I.R., Yeo U.S., Jeong O.Y., Jena K.K., Lee J.S.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  1827
Loss-of-Function Alleles of <i>Heading date 1</i> (<i>Hd1</i>) Are Associated With Adaptation of Temperate <i>Japonica</i> Rice Plants to the Tropical Region.
Zeng L., Liu X., Zhou Z., Li D., Zhao X., Zhu L., Luo Y., Hu S.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  157
Identification of a G2-like transcription factor, OsPHL3, functions as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by co-expression and reverse genetic analysis.
Gong R., Cao H., Zhang J., Xie K., Wang D., Yu S.
Plant J. 2018  94(1)  32-47
Divergent functions of the GAGA-binding transcription factor family in rice.
Song S., Wang G., Hu Y., Liu H., Bai X., Qin R., Xing Y.
J. Exp. Bot. 2018  69(18)  4283-4293
OsMFT1 increases spikelets per panicle and delays heading date in rice by suppressing Ehd1, FZP and SEPALLATA-like genes.
Minh-Thu PT., Kim J.S., Chae S., Jun K.M., Lee G.S., Kim D.E., Cheong J.J., Song S.I., Nahm B.H., Kim Y.K.
Mol. Cells 2018  41(8)  781-798
A WUSCHEL Homeobox Transcription Factor, OsWOX13, Enhances Drought Tolerance and Triggers Early Flowering in Rice.
Chen J.Y., Zhang H.W., Zhang H.L., Ying J.Z., Ma L.Y., Zhuang J.Y.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  112
Natural variation at qHd1 affects heading date acceleration at high temperatures with pleiotropism for yield traits in rice.
Zhu S., Wang J., Cai M., Zhang H., Wu F., Xu Y., Li C., Cheng Z., Zhang X., Guo X., Sheng P., Wu M., Wang J., Lei C., Wang J., Zhao Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.
J. Exp. Bot. 2017  68(3)  553-568
The OsHAPL1-DTH8-Hd1 complex functions as the transcription regulator to repress heading date in rice.
Tan J., Wu F., Wan J.
Plant Signal Behav 2017  12(1)  e1267893
Flowering time regulation by the CONSTANS-like gene OsCOL10.
Du A., Tian W., Wei M., Yan W., He H., Zhou D., Huang X., Li S., Ouyang X.
Mol Plant 2017  10(7)  948-961
The DTH8-Hd1 module Mediates Day-Length-Dependent Regulation of Rice Flowering.
Deng L., Li L., Zhang S., Shen J., Li S., Hu S., Peng Q., Xiao J., Wu C.
PLoS Genet. 2017  13(2)  e1006642
Suppressor of RID1 (SID1) shares common targets with RID1 on florigen genes to initiate floral transition in rice.
Goretti D., Martignago D., Landini M., Brambilla V., Gómez-Ariza J., Gnesutta N., Galbiati F., Collani S., Takagi H., Terauchi R., Mantovani R., Fornara F.
PLoS Genet. 2017  13(1)  e1006530
Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Mechanisms Limit HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) Function to Adapt Rice to High Latitudes.
Brambilla V., Martignago D., Goretti D., Cerise M., Somssich M., de Rosa M., Galbiati F., Shrestha R., Lazzaro F., Simon R., Fornara F.
Plant Cell 2017  29(11)  2801-2816
Antagonistic Transcription Factor Complexes Modulate the Floral Transition in Rice.
Wu Q., Liu X., Yin D., Yuan H., Xie Q., Zhao X., Li X., Zhu L., Li S., Li D.
BMC Plant Biol. 2017  17(1)  166
Constitutive expression of OsDof4, encoding a C2-C2 zinc finger transcription factor, confesses its distinct flowering effects under long- and short-day photoperiods in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Wu W., Zheng X.M., Chen D., Zhang Y., Ma W., Zhang H., Sun L., Yang Z., Zhao C., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Fu Y., Zhu S., Cao L., Cheng S.
Plant Sci. 2017  260  60-69
OsCOL16, encoding a CONSTANS-like protein, represses flowering by up-regulating Ghd7 expression in rice.
Liu K., Yu Y., Dong A., Shen W.H.
New Phytol. 2017  215(2)  609-623
SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.
Li C., Zhu S., Zhang H., Chen L., Cai M., Wang J., Chai J., Wu F., Cheng Z., Guo X., Zhang X., Wan J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2017  486(3)  720-725
OsLBD37 and OsLBD38, two class II type LBD proteins, are involved in the regulation of heading date by controlling the expression of Ehd1 in rice.
Sheng P., Wu F., Tan J., Zhang H., Ma W., Chen L., Wang J., Wang J., Zhu S., Guo X., Wang J., Zhang X., Cheng Z., Bao Y., Wu C., Liu X., Wan J.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2016  92(1-2)  209-22
A CONSTANS-like transcriptional activator, OsCOL13, functions as a negative regulator of flowering downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1 in rice.
Wang J., Wu F., Zhu S., Xu Y., Cheng Z., Wang J., Li C., Sheng P., Zhang H., Cai M., Guo X., Zhang X., Wang C., Wan J.
FEBS Lett. 2016   
Overexpression of OsMYB1R1-VP64 fusion protein increases grain yield in rice by delaying flowering time.
Du Y., He W., Deng C., Chen X., Gou L., Zhu F., Guo W., Zhang J., Wang T.
PLoS ONE 2016  11(3)  e0150458
Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates flowering time and Yield Potential by Affecting histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).
Sun X., Zhang Z., Wu J., Cui X., Feng D., Wang K., Xu M., Zhou L., Han X., Gu X., Lu T.
PLoS Genet. 2016  12(3)  e1005927
The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Pasriga R., An G.
Plant Physiol. 2016  170(4)  2159-71
Homodimerization of Ehd1 Is Required to Induce Flowering in Rice.
Li S., Yue W., Wang M., Qiu W., Zhou L., Shou H.
Front Plant Sci 2016  7  465
Mutation of OsGIGANTEA Leads to Enhanced Tolerance to Polyethylene Glycol-Generated Osmotic Stress in Rice.
Tan J., Jin M., Wang J., Wu F., Sheng P., Cheng Z., Wang J., Zheng X., Chen L., Wang M., Zhu S., Guo X., Zhang X., Liu X., Wang C., Wang H., Wu C., Wan J.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2016  57(4)  798-812
OsCOL10, a CONSTANS-like Gene, Functions as a flowering time Repressor Downstream of Ghd7 in Rice.
Jeong H.J., Yang J., Cho L.H., An G.
Plant Cell Rep. 2016  35(4)  905-20
OsVIL1 controls flowering time in rice by suppressing OsLF under short days and by inducing Ghd7 under long days.
Bai B., Zhao J., Li Y., Zhang F., Zhou J., Chen F., Xie X.
Plant Sci. 2016  247  25-34
OsBBX14 delays heading date by repressing florigen gene expression under long and short-day conditions in rice.
Huang X., Yang S., Gong J., Zhao Q., Feng Q., Zhan Q., Zhao Y., Li W., Cheng B., Xia J., Chen N., Huang T., Zhang L., Fan D., Chen J., Zhou C., Lu Y., Weng Q., Han B.
Nature 2016  537(7622)  629-633
Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice.
Liu H., Gu F., Dong S., Liu W., Wang H., Chen Z., Wang J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016  479(2)  173-178
CONSTANS-like 9 (COL9) delays the flowering time in Oryza sativa by repressing the Ehd1 pathway.
Chen X., Lu S., Wang Y., Zhang X., Lv B., Luo L., Xi D., Shen J., Ma H., Ming F.
Plant J. 2015  82(2)  302-14
OsNAC2 encoding a NAC transcription factor that affects plant height through mediating the gibberellic acid pathway in rice.
Yang Y., Fu D., Zhu C., He Y., Zhang H., Liu T., Li X., Wu C.
Plant Cell 2015   
The RING-Finger Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Mediates heading date 1 Degradation during Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
Tamaki S., Tsuji H., Matsumoto A., Fujita A., Shimatani Z., Terada R., Sakamoto T., Kurata T., Shimamoto K.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015  112(8)  E901-10
FT-like proteins induce transposon silencing in the shoot apex during floral induction in rice.
Zhang L., Li Q., Dong H., He Q., Liang L., Tan C., Han Z., Yao W., Li G., Zhao H., Xie W., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2015  5  7663
Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice.
Su L., Shan J.X., Gao J.P., Lin H.X.
Mol Plant 2015   
OsHAL3, a Blue Light responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice.
Kim S.K., Park H.Y., Jang Y.H., Lee K.C., Chung Y.S., Lee J.H., Kim J.K.
Planta 2015   
OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice.
Jin J., Shi J., Liu B., Liu Y., Huang Y., Yu Y., Dong A.
Plant Physiol. 2015   
MRG702, a reader protein of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, is involved in brassinosteroid-regulated growth and flowering time control in rice.
Fan T., Li X., Yang W., Xia K., Ouyang J., Zhang M.
PLoS ONE 2015  10(5)  e0125833
Rice osa-miR171c Mediates Phase Change from Vegetative to Reproductive Development and shoot apical meristem Maintenance by Repressing Four OsHAM Transcription Factors.
Cai Y., Vega-Sánchez ME., Park C.H., Bellizzi M., Guo Z., Wang G.L.
PLoS ONE 2014  9(1)  e87258
RBS1, an RNA binding protein, interacts with Spin1 and is involved in flowering time control in rice.
Thurber C.S., Reagon M., Olsen K.M., Jia Y., Caicedo A.L.
Am. J. Bot. 2014  101(10)  1737-47
The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice.
Gao H., Jin M., Zheng X.M., Chen J., Yuan D., Xin Y., Wang M., Huang D., Zhang Z., Zhou K., Sheng P., Ma J., Ma W., Deng H., Jiang L., Liu S., Wang H., Wu C., Yuan L., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014   
Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.
Cai Y., Chen X., Xie K., Xing Q., Wu Y., Li J., Du C., Sun Z., Guo Z.
PLoS ONE 2014  9(7)  e102529
Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.
Yang Y., Peng Q., Chen G.X., Li X.H., Wu C.Y.
Mol Plant 2013  6(1)  202-15
OsELF3 is Involved in Circadian Clock Regulation for Promoting Flowering under Long-Day Conditions in Rice.
Koo B.H., Yoo S.C., Park J.W., Kwon C.T., Lee B.D., An G., Zhang Z., Li J., Li Z., Paek N.C.
Mol Plant 2013  6(6)  1877-88
Natural variation in OsPRR37 regulates heading date and contributes to rice cultivation at a wide range of latitudes.
Wu W., Zheng X.M., Lu G., Zhong Z., Gao H., Chen L., Wu C., Wang H.J., Wang Q., Zhou K., Wang J.L., Wu F., Zhang X., Guo X., Cheng Z., Lei C., Lin Q., Jiang L., Wang H., Ge S., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013  110(8)  2775-80
Association of functional nucleotide polymorphisms at DTH2 with the northward expansion of rice cultivation in Asia.
Tsuji H., Nakamura H., Taoka K., Shimamoto K.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2013  54(3)  385-97
Functional diversification of FD transcription factors in rice, components of florigen activation complexes.
Yang J., Lee S., Hang R., Kim S.R., Lee Y.S., Cao X., Amasino R., An G.
Plant J. 2013  73(4)  566-78
OsVIL2 functions with PRC2 to induce flowering by repressing OsLFL1 in rice.
Wang J., Hu J., Qian Q., Xue H.W.
Mol Plant 2013  6(2)  514-27
LC2 and OsVIL2 promote rice flowering by photoperoid-induced epigenetic silencing of OsLF.
Naeem M.a c, Freed S.b, Quan Z.G.a
Int J Agric Biol 2013  15  631-639
Molecular genetic studies of heading date gene OsMADS50 by using single segment substitution lines in Oryza sativa
Taoka K., Ohki I., Tsuji H., Kojima C., Shimamoto K.
Trends Plant Sci. 2013  18(5)  287-94
Structure and function of florigen and the receptor complex.
Ogiso-Tanaka E., Matsubara K., Yamamoto S., Nonoue Y., Wu J., Fujisawa H., Ishikubo H., Tanaka T., Ando T., Matsumoto T., Yano M.
PLoS ONE 2013  8(10)  e75959
Natural Variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 Contributes to flowering time Divergence in Rice.
Gao H., Zheng X.M., Fei G., Chen J., Jin M., Ren Y., Wu W., Zhou K., Sheng P., Zhou F., Jiang L., Wang J., Zhang X., Guo X., Wang J.L., Cheng Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.M.
PLoS Genet. 2013  9(2)  e1003281
Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Liu D., Cai X.
J Integr Plant Biol 2013  55(9)  876-87
OsRRMh, a Spen-like Gene, Plays an Important Role during the Vegetative to Reproductive Transition in Rice.
Kobayashi K., Yasuno N., Sato Y., Yoda M., Yamazaki R., Kimizu M., Yoshida H., Nagamura Y., Kyozuka J.
Plant Cell 2012  24(5)  1848-59
inflorescence meristem Identity in Rice Is Specified by Overlapping Functions of Three AP1/FUL-Like MADS Box Genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS Box Gene.
Huang,C.L., Hung,C.Y., Chiang,Y.C., Hwang,C.C., Hsu,T.W., Huang,C.C., Hung,K.H., Tsai,K.C., Wang,K.H., Osada,N., Schaal,B.A. and Chiang,T.Y.
Plant J. 2012  70(5)  769-782
Footprints of natural and artificial selection for photoperiod pathway genes in Oryza
Sun C., Fang J., Zhao T., Xu B., Zhang F., Liu L., Tang J., Zhang G., Deng X., Chen F., Qian Q., Cao X., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2012  24(8)  3235-47
The histone methyltransferase SDG724 Mediates H3K36me2/3 Deposition at MADS50 and RFT1 and Promotes Flowering in Rice.
Liu S., Wang F., Gao L.J., Li J.H., Li R.B., Gao H.L., Deng G.F., Yang J.S., Luo X.J.
Breed. Sci. 2012  62(4)  310-9
Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Liu J., Li W., Ning Y., Shirsekar G., Wang X., Dai L., Wang Z., Liu W., Wang G.L.
Plant Physiol. 2012  160(1)  28-37
The U-box E3 ligase SPL11/PUB13 Is a Convergence Point of Defense and Flowering Signaling in Plants.
Takahashi Y., Shimamoto K.
Genes and Genetic Systems 2011  86  175-182
Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS, is a possible target of human selectionduring domestication to diversify floweringtimes of cultivated rice
Izawa T. , Mihara M. , Suzuki Y. , Gupta M. , Itoh H. , Nagano A.J. , Motoyama R. , Sawada Y. , Yano M. , Hirai M.Y. , Makino A. , Nagamura Y.
Plant Cell 2011  23(5)  1741-55
Os-GIGANTEA Confers Robust Diurnal Rhythms on the Global Transcriptome of Rice in the Field.
Ebana K,Shibaya T,Wu J,Matsubara K,Kanamori H,Yamane H,Yamanouchi U,Mizubayashi T,Kono I,Shomura A,Ito S,Ando T,Hori K,Matsumoto T,Yano M
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2011  122(6)  1199-210
Uncovering of major genetic factors generating naturally occurring variation in heading date among Asian rice cultivars.
Taoka K., Ohki I., Tsuji H., Furuita K., Hayashi K., Yanase T., Yamaguchi M., Nakashima C., Purwestri Y.A., Tamaki S., Ogaki Y., Shimada C., Nakagawa A., Kojima C., Shimamoto K.
Nature 2011  476(7360)  332-5
14-3-3 proteins act as intracellular receptors for rice Hd3a florigen.
Ishikawa R. , Aoki M. , Kurotani K. , Yokoi S. , Shinomura T. , Takano M. , Shimamoto K.
Mol. Genet. Genomics 2011  285(6)  461-70
Phytochrome B regulates Heading date 1 (Hd1)-mediated expression of rice florigen Hd3a and critical day length in rice.
Li W., Han Y., Tao F., Chong K.
J. Plant Physiol. 2011  168(15)  1837-43
Knockdown of SAMS genes encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthetases causes methylation alterations of DNAs and histones and leads to late flowering in rice.
Li C., Huang L., Xu C., Zhao Y., Zhou D.X.
PLoS ONE 2011  6(7)  e21789
Altered levels of histone deacetylase OsHDT1 affect differential gene expression patterns in hybrid rice.
Navarro C., Abelenda J.A., Cruz-Oró E., Cuéllar CA., Tamaki S., Silva J., Shimamoto K., Prat S.
Nature 2011  478(7367)  119-22
Control of flowering and storage organ formation in potato by FLOWERING LOCUS T.
Wei X., Xu J., Guo H., Jiang L., Chen S., Yu C., Zhou Z., Hu P., Zhai H., Wan J.
Plant Physiol. 2010  153(4)  1747-1758
DTH8 suppresses flowering in rice, influencing plant height and yield potential simultaneously.
Itoh H,Nonoue Y,Yano M,Izawa T
Nat Genet 2010  42(7)  635-8
A pair of floral regulators sets critical day length for Hd3a florigen expression in rice.
Maas LF,McClung A,McCouch S
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2010  120(5)  895-908
Dissection of a QTL reveals an adaptive, interacting gene complex associated with transgressive variation for flowering time in rice.
Zheng,X.M. and Ge,S.
Mol. Ecol. 2010  19(12)  2439-2454
Ecological divergence in the presence of gene flow in two closely related Oryza species (Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara)
Purwestri YA,Ogaki Y,Tamaki S,Tsuji H,Shimamoto K
Plant Cell Physiol. 2009  50  429-38
The 14-3-3 protein GF14c acts as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by interacting with the florigen Hd3a.
Hagiwara,W.E., Uwatoko,N., Sasaki,A., Matsubara,K., Nagano,H., Onishi,K. and Sano,Y.
Mol. Ecol. 2009  18(7)  1537-49
Diversification in flowering time due to tandem FT-like gene duplication, generating novel Mendelian factors in wild and cultivated rice
Takahashi Y,Teshima KM,Yokoi S,Innan H,Shimamoto K
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009  106  4555-60
Variations in Hd1 proteins, Hd3a promoters, and Ehd1 expression levels contribute to diversity of flowering time in cultivated rice.
Komiya R., Yokoi S., Shimamoto K.
Development 2009  136(20)  3443-50
A gene network for long-day flowering activates RFT1 encoding a mobile flowering signal in rice.
Park SJ,Kim SL,Lee S,Je BI,Piao HL,Park SH,Kim CM,Ryu CH,Park SH,Xuan YH,Colasanti J,An G,Han CD
Plant J. 2008  56  1018-29
Rice Indeterminate 1 (OsId1) is necessary for the expression of Ehd1 (Early heading date 1) regardless of photoperiod.
Vega-Sanchez ME,Zeng L,Chen S,Leung H,Wang GL
Plant Cell 2008  20  1456-69
SPIN1, a K homology domain protein negatively regulated and ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SPL11, is involved in flowering time control in rice.
Komiya R,Ikegami A,Tamaki S,Yokoi S,Shimamoto K
Development 2008  135  767-74
Hd3a and RFT1 are essential for flowering in rice.
Faure S, Higgins J, Turner A, Laurie DA.
Genetics 2007  176(1)  599-609
The FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare).
Kim SL,Lee S,Kim HJ,Nam HG,An G
Plant Physiol. 2007  145  1484-94
OsMADS51 is a short-day flowering promoter that functions upstream of Ehd1, OsMADS14, and Hd3a.
Tamaki S, Matsuo S, Wong HL, Yokoi S, Shimamoto K.
Science 2007  316(5827)  1033 - 1036
Hd3a Protein Is a Mobile Flowering Signal in Rice
Uga Y, Nonoue Y, Liang ZW, Lin HX, Yamamoto S, Yamanouchi U, Yano M.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2007  114  1457-66
Accumulation of additive effects generates a strong photoperiod sensitivity in the extremely late-heading rice cultivar 'Nona Bokra'.
Hayama R,Agashe B,Luley E,King R,Coupland G
Plant Cell 2007  19  2988-3000
A circadian rhythm set by dusk determines the expression of FT homologs and the short-day photoperiodic flowering response in Pharbitis.
Ishikawa R., Tamaki S., Yokoi S., Inagaki N., Shinomura T., Takano M., Shimamoto K.
Plant Cell 2005  17(12)  3326-36
Suppression of the floral activator Hd3a is the principal cause of the night break effect in rice.
Chardon F., Damerval C.
J. Mol. Evol. 2005  61(5)  579-90
Phylogenomic analysis of the PEBP gene family in cereals.
Armstead, I.P., L.B. Turner, M. Farrell, L. Skot, P. Gomez, T. Montoya, I.S. Dornnison, I.P. King, M.Q. Humphreys
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2004  108  822-828
Synteny between a major heading date QTL in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and the Hd3 heading-date locus in rice.
Hayama, R., Yokoi, S., Tamaki, S., Yano, M. and Shimamoto, K.
Nature 2003  422  719-722
Adaptation of photoperiodic control pathways produces short-day flowering in rice.
Monna, L., H. Lin, S. Kojima, T. Sasaki, M. Yano
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2002  104  772-778
Genetic dissection of a genomic region for a quantitative trait locus, Hd3, into two loci, Hd3a and Hd3b, controlling heading date in rice.
Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T. and Yano, M.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2002  43  1096-1105
Izawa, T., T. Oikawa, N. Sugiyama, T. Tanisaka, M. Yano and K. Shimamoto
Genes Dev. 2002  16  2006-2020
Phytochrome mediates the external light signal to repress FT orthologs in photoperiodic flowering of rice.
Yano, M., Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y, Lin, H. and Sasaki, T.
Plant Physiol. 2001  127  1425-1429
Genetic control of flowering time in rice, a short-day plant.
Lin, H.X., T. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki and M. Yano
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2000  101  1021-1028
Characterization and detection of epistatic interactions of 3 QTLs, Hd1, Hd2, and Hd3, controlling heading date in rice using nearly isogenic lines.
Yamamoto, T., Y. Kuboki, S.Y. Lin, T. Sasaki and M. Yano
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1998  97  37-44.
Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci Hd-1, Hd-2 and Hd-3, controlloing heading date of rice, as single Mendelian factors.
Kojima, S., L. Monna. T. Fuse, T. Baba, T, Sasaki and M. Yano
Breeding Science 1998  48(Suppl. 2)  96
Fine-scale genetic linkage map and physical mapping of a rice photoperiod sensitivitiy gene, Hd-3.
Yano, M., Y. Harushima, Y. Nagamura, N. Kurata, Y. Minobe and T. Sasaki
Theor. Appl. Genet. 1997  95  1025-1032.
Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling heading date in rice using a high-density linkage map.
Yano, M., T. Yamamoto, Y. Kuboki, S.Y. Lin, C. Orihara and T. Sasaki
Breeding Science 1996  46(Suppl. 2)  58
Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, Hd-3, associated with heading date in rice chromosome 6.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for HD3A ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0060442
Gene Ontology response to light stimulus( GO:0009416 )
response to abscisic acid stimulus( GO:0009737 )
photoperiodism( GO:0009648 )
transcription factor activity( GO:0003700 )
phosphatidylcholine binding( GO:0031210 )
phospholipid binding( GO:0005543 )
short-day photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048575 )
short-day photoperiodism( GO:0048572 )
regulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase( GO:0048510 )
cell differentiation( GO:0030154 )
inflorescence development( GO:0010229 )
regulation of flower development( GO:0009909 )
phosphatidylethanolamine binding( GO:0008429 )
nucleus( GO:0005634 )
reproductive developmental process( GO:0003006 )
cytoplasm( GO:0005737 )
flower development( GO:0009908 )
positive regulation of short-day photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048576 )
positive regulation of long-day photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048578 )
Trait Ontology days to maturity( TO:0000469 )
photoperiod sensitivity( TO:0000229 )
grain yield( TO:0000396 )
panicle number( TO:0000152 )
days to heading( TO:0000137 )
filled grain number( TO:0000447 )
seed set percent( TO:0000455 )
1000-seed weight( TO:0000382 )
nitrogen sensitivity( TO:0000011 )
flowering time( TO:0002616 )
abscisic acid sensitivity( TO:0000615 )
light sensitivity( TO:0000075 )
Plant Ontology inflorescence( PO:0009049 )
spikelet floret( PO:0009082 )
sporophyte( PO:0009003 )
seed( PO:0009010 )
portion of meristem tissue( PO:0009013 )
inflorescence meristem( PO:0000230 )
Related Strains
Phenotype images
Last updated
Nov 18, 2022