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Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol D3
Gene Symbol Synonym d3, dwf3, D3/OsMAX2, Os_F0760, SOL1, OsORE9, ORE9, MAX2, OsRFPH2-10, RFPH2-10, OsD3, OsFBL27, FBL27
Gene Name Synonym bunketsuwaito tillering dwarf, dwarf-3, F-box/LRR-repeat MAX2 homolog, F-box and leucine-rich repeat MAX2 homolog, DWARF 3, DWARF-3, suppressor of lazy1, DWARF3, ORESARA 9, MAX2 ortholog, F-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase L27
Allele Osd3, d3, d3-1, d3-2, d3-3, sol1, sol1-1, sol1-2, d3 300097, gsor300097
Chromosome No. 6
Explanation Profuse tillering with slender leaves. Duplicate or triplicate. Q5VMP0. GRO:0007044; 06-heading stage ; GRO:0007042; 08-dough stage ; GRO:0007046; 07-milk stage ; GRO:0007048; 04-stem elongation stage ; GRO:0007047; 02-seedling ; GRO:0007049; 03-tillering stage ; GRO:0007148; 05-booting stage ; GRO:0007045; 09-mature grain stage. F-box protein. a rice homolog of Arabidopsis ORESARA 1. an F-box component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. GO:0090548: response to nitrate starvation. GO:1901698: response to nitrogen compound. GO:1902347: response to strigolactone. PRJNA593368 in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. GO:0080167: response to karrikin. GO:0036377: arbuscular mycorrhizal association. GO:2000023: regulation of lateral root development.
Trait Class Vegetative organ - Culm
Vegetative organ - Root
Tolerance and resistance - Stress tolerance
Character as QTL - Yield and productivity
cDNA Accession No. AK065478
MSU ID LOC_Os06g06050.1
RAP ID Os06g0154200
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link to INSD Accession List
Locate(cM) 168.0
Link map Classical linkage map
Mashiguchi K., Morita R., Tanaka K., Kodama K., Kameoka H., Kyozuka J., Seto Y., Yamaguchi S.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2023  64(9)  1066-1078
Activation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by the DWARF14-LIKE/KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE2 Pathway in Mycorrhizal Angiosperms, but Not in Arabidopsis, a Non-mycorrhizal Plant.
Chen T., Xiao W., Huang C., Zhou D., Liu Y., Guo T., Chen Z., Wang H.
Plants (Basel) 2023  12(7) 
Fine Mapping of the Affecting Tillering and Plant Height Gene <i>CHA-1</i> in Rice.
Zhang Q., Xie J., Zhu X., Ma X., Yang T., Khan N.U., Zhang S., Liu M., Li L., Liang Y., Pan Y., Li D., Li J., Li Z., Zhang H., Zhang Z.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2023  21(5)  1044-1057
Natural variation in tiller number 1 affects its interaction with TIF1 to regulate tillering in rice.
Huo C., Zhang B., Wang R.
Plant Signal Behav 2022  17(1)  2004035
Research progress on plant noncoding RNAs in response to low-temperature stress.
Chiu C.H., Roszak P., Orvošová M., Paszkowski U.
Curr. Biol. 2022  32(20)  4428-4437.e3
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce lateral root development in angiosperms via a conserved set of MAMP receptors.
Wang R., You X., Zhang C., Fang H., Wang M., Zhang F., Kang H., Xu X., Liu Z., Wang J., Zhao Q., Wang X., Hao Z., He F., Tao H., Wang D., Wang J., Fang L., Qin M., Zhao T., Zhang P., Xing H., Xiao Y., Liu W., Xie Q., Wang G.L., Ning Y.
Genome Biol. 2022  23(1)  154
An ORFeome of rice E3 ubiquitin ligases for global analysis of the ubiquitination interactome.
Hull R., Choi J., Paszkowski U.
Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2021  62  102071
Conditioning plants for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis through DWARF14-LIKE signalling.
M T AP., Ramchander S., K K K., Muthamilarasan M., Pillai M.A.
PLoS ONE 2021  16(1)  e0245603
Assessment of efficacy of mutagenesis of gamma-irradiation in plant height and days to maturity through expression analysis in rice.
Nasir F., Bahadur A., Lin X., Gao Y., Tian C.
J. Exp. Bot. 2021  72(5)  1546-1557
Novel insights into host receptors and receptor-mediated signaling that regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
Jiang J., Yang G., Xin Y., Wang Z., Yan W., Chen Z., Tang X., Xia J.
Genes (Basel) 2021  12(5) 
Overexpression of <i>OsMed16</i> Inhibits the Growth of Rice and Causes Spontaneous Cell Death.
Shindo M., Yamamoto S., Shimomura K., Umehara M.
Front Plant Sci 2020  11  135
Strigolactones Decrease leaf angle in Response to Nutrient Deficiencies in Rice.
Zhang Y.C., He R.R., Lian J.P., Zhou Y.F., Zhang F., Li Q.F., Yu Y., Feng Y.Z., Yang Y.W., Lei M.Q., He H., Zhang Z., Chen Y.Q.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2020  117(1)  727-732
OsmiR528 regulates rice-pollen intine formation by targeting an uclacyanin to influence flavonoid metabolism.
Zheng J., Hong K., Zeng L., Wang L., Kang S., Qu M., Dai J., Zou L., Zhu L., Tang Z., Meng X., Wang B., Hu J., Zeng D., Zhao Y., Cui P., Wang Q., Qian Q., Wang Y., Li J., Xiong G.
Plant Cell 2020  32(9)  2780-2805
Karrikin Signaling Acts Parallel to and Additively with Strigolactone Signaling to Regulate Rice Mesocotyl Elongation in Darkness.
Choi J., Lee T., Cho J., Servante E.K., Pucker B., Summers W., Bowden S., Rahimi M., An K., An G., Bouwmeester H.J., Wallington E.J., Oldroyd G., Paszkowski U.
Nat Commun 2020  11(1)  2114
The negative regulator SMAX1 controls mycorrhizal symbiosis and strigolactone biosynthesis in rice.
Zhang S., Zhu L., Shen C., Ji Z., Zhang H., Zhang T., Li Y., Yu J., Yang N., He Y., Tian Y., Wu K., Wu J., Harberd N.P., Zhao Y., Fu X., Wang S., Li S.
Plant Cell 2020   
Natural allelic variation in a modulator of auxin homeostasis improves grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in rice.
Fang Z., Ji Y., Hu J., Guo R., Sun S., Wang X.
Mol Plant 2020  13(4)  586-597
Strigolactones and Brassinosteroids Antagonistically Regulate the Stability of the D53-OsBZR1 Complex to Determine FC1 Expression in Rice Tillering.
Tang W., Wells A Thompson
Curr. Genomics 2019  20(2)  100-114
OsmiR528 Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance by Repressing Expression of stress response-related transcription factor.Genes in Plant Cells.
Wang J., Wu B., Lu K., Wei Q., Qian J., Chen Y., Fang Z.
Plant Physiol. 2019  180(2)  1031-1045
The Amino Acid Permease 5 (OsAAP5) Regulates tiller number and grain yield in Rice.
Huang W., Bai G., Wang J., Zhu W., Zeng Q., Lu K., Sun S., Fang Z.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  300
Two Splicing Variants of <i>OsNPF7.7</i> Regulate shoot branching and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in Rice.
Sun S., Wang T., Wang L., Li X., Jia Y., Liu C., Huang X., Xie W., Wang X.
Nat Commun 2018  9(1)  2523
Natural selection of a GSK3 determines rice mesocotyl domestication by coordinating strigolactone and brassinosteroid signaling.
Shabek N., Ticchiarelli F., Mao H., Hinds T.R., Leyser O., Zheng N.
Nature 2018  563(7733)  652-656
Structural plasticity of D3-D14 ubiquitin ligase in strigolactone signalling.
Wang J., Lu K., Nie H., Zeng Q., Wu B., Qian J., Fang Z.
Rice (N Y) 2018  11(1)  12
Rice nitrate transporter OsNPF7.2 positively regulates tiller number and grain yield.
Zhou J., Deng K., Cheng Y., Zhong Z., Tian L., Tang X., Tang A., Zheng X., Zhang T., Qi Y., Zhang Y.
Front Plant Sci 2017  8  1598
CRISPR-Cas9 Based Genome Editing Reveals New Insights into MicroRNA Function and Regulation in Rice.
Zheng L., Zhang C., Shi C., Yang Z., Wang Y., Zhou T., Sun F., Wang H., Zhao S., Qin Q., Qiao R., Ding Z., Wei C., Xie L., Wu J., Li Y.
PLoS Pathog. 2017  13(10)  e1006662
Rice stripe virus NS3 protein regulates primary miRNA processing through association with the miRNA biogenesis factor OsDRB1 and facilitates virus infection in rice.
Wang Y.P., Tang S.Q., Chen H.Z., Wu Z.F., Zhang H., Duan E.C., Shi Q.H., Wu Z.M.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2017   
Identification and molecular mapping of indica high-tillering dwarf mutant htd4, a mild phenotype allelic mutant of D14 in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Deshpande G.M., Ramakrishna K., Chongloi G.L., Vijayraghavan U.
J. Exp. Bot. 2015  66(9)  2773-84
Functions for rice RFL in vegetative axillary meristem specification and outgrowth.
Chen Z., Gao X., Zhang J.
Plant Cell Rep. 2015  34(5)  767-81
Alteration of osa-miR156e expression affects rice plant architecture and strigolactones (SLs) pathway.
Zhao J., Wang T., Wang M., Liu Y., Yuan S., Gao Y., Yin L., Sun W., Peng L., Zhang W., Wan J., Li X.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2014  55(6)  1096-109
DWARF3 participates in an SCF complex and associates with DWARF14 to suppress rice shoot branching.
Sun H., Tao J., Liu S., Huang S., Chen S., Xie X., Yoneyama K., Zhang Y., Xu G.
J. Exp. Bot. 2014   
Strigolactones are involved in phosphate- and nitrate-deficiency-induced root development and auxin transport in rice.
Liang W., Shang F., Lin Q., Lou C., Zhang J.
Gene 2014  537(1)  1-5
Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.
Lee S.H., Sakuraba Y., Lee T., Kim K.W., An G., Lee H.Y., Paek N.C.
J Integr Plant Biol 2014   
Mutation of Oryza sativa CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1b (OsCOI1b) delays leaf senescence.
Sang D., Chen D., Liu G., Liang Y., Huang L., Meng X., Chu J., Sun X., Dong G., Yuan Y., Qian Q., Li J., Wang Y.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014  111(30)  11199-204
Strigolactones regulate rice tiller angle by attenuating shoot gravitropism through inhibiting auxin biosynthesis.
Ikeda M., Miura K., Aya K., Kitano H., Matsuoka M.
Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2013  16(2)  213-20
Genes offering the potential for designing yield-related traits in rice.
Smith S.M.
Nature 2013  504(7480)  384-5
Plant biology: Witchcraft and destruction.
Jiang L., Liu X., Xiong G., Liu H., Chen F., Wang L., Meng X., Liu G., Yu H., Yuan Y., Yi W., Zhao L., Ma H., He Y., Wu Z., Melcher K., Qian Q., H.EricXu, Wang Y., Li J.
Nature 2013  504  401-405
DWARF 53 acts as a repressor of strigolactone signalling in rice
Challis R.J., Hepworth J., Mouchel C., Waites R., Leyser O.
Plant Physiol. 2013  161(4)  1885-902
A Role for MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1) in Evolutionary Diversity in Strigolactone Signaling Upstream of MAX2.
Zhou F.a b, Lin Q.b, Zhu L.a, Ren Y.b, Zhou K.a, Shabek N.c d, Wu F.b, Mao H.c d, Dong W.b, Gan L.b, Ma W.b, Gao H.a, Chen J.b, Yang C.a, Wang D.b, Tan J.b, Zhang X.b, Guo X.b, Wang J.b, Jiang L.a, Liu X.a, Chen W.e, Chu J.e, Yan C.f, Ueno K.f, Ito S.f, Asami T.b, Cheng Z.b, Wang J.b, Lei C.b, Zhai H.b, Wu C.b, Wang H.b, Zheng N.c d, Wan J.a b
Nature 2013  504  406-410
D14-SCF D3 -dependent degradation of D53 regulates strigolactone signalling
Hua Z., Zou C., Shin-Han Shiu, Richard D Vierstra
PLoS ONE 2011  6(1)  e16219
Phylogenetic comparison of F-Box (FBX) gene superfamily within the plant kingdom reveals divergent evolutionary histories indicative of genomic drift.
Gao Z,Qian Q,Liu X,Yan M,Feng Q,Dong G,Liu J,Han B
Plant Mol. Biol. 2009  71(3)  265-76
Dwarf 88, a novel putative esterase gene affecting architecture of rice plant.
Xu G., Ma H., Nei M., Kong H.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009  106(3)  835-40
Evolution of F-box genes in plants: different modes of sequence divergence and their relationships with functional diversification.
Umehara M., Hanada A., Yoshida S., Akiyama K., Arite T., Noriko Takeda-Kamiya, Magome H., Kamiya Y., Shirasu K., Yoneyama K., KYOZUKA J., Yamaguchi S.
Nature 2008  455(7210)  195-200
Inhibition of shoot branching by new terpenoid plant hormones.
Arite T, Iwata H, Ohshima K, Maekawa M, Nakajima M, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Kyozuka J.
Plant J. 2007  51(6)  1019-1029
DWARF10, an RMS1/MAX4/DAD1 ortholog, controls lateral bud outgrowth in rice.
Jain M, Nijhawan A, Arora R, Agarwal P, Ray S, Sharma P, Kapoor S, Tyagi AK, Khurana JP.
Plant Physiol. 2007  143(4)  1467-1483
F-Box Proteins in Rice. Genome-Wide Analysis, Classification, Temporal and Spatial Gene Expression during Panicle and Seed Development, and Regulation by Light and Abiotic Stress.
Zou J, Zhang S, Zhang W, Li G, Chen Z, Zhai W, Zhao X, Pan X, Xie Q, Zhu L.
Plant J. 2006  48(5)  687-696
The rice HIGH-TILLERING DWARF1 encoding an ortholog of Arabidopsis MAX3 is required for negative regulation of the outgrowth of axillary buds.
Maekawa M, Takamure I, Ahmed N, Kyozuka J.
Breeding Science 2005  55(2)  193-196
Bunketsu-waito, One of the Tillering Dwarfs, is Controlled by a Single Recessive Gene in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Ishikawa S, Maekawa M, Arite T, Onishi K, Takamure I, Kyozuka J.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2005  46(1)  79-86
Suppression of Tiller Bud Activity in Tillering Dwarf Mutants of Rice
Kinoshita, T.
In Biology of Rice. S. Tsunoda and N. Takahashi eds. JSSP/Elsevier, Tokyo. 1984    187-274.
Gene analysis and linkage map.
Takahashi, M. and T. Kinoshita
Res. Bull. Univ. Farm Hokkaido Univ. 1974  19  41-50.
Genic identification on the forms of the tillering dwarf rice. -Genetical studies on rice plant, LIX-.
Nagao, S. and M. Takahashi
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Trial construction of twelve linkage groups in Japanese rice. (Genetical studies on rice plant, XXVII).
Nagao, S.
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Genic analysis and linkage relationship of characters in rice.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for D3 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0060186
Gene Ontology negative gravitropism( GO:0009959 )
leaf senescence( GO:0010150 )
response to salt stress( GO:0009651 )
response to symbiotic fungus( GO:0009610 )
response to absence of light( GO:0009646 )
response to starvation( GO:0042594 )
secondary shoot formation( GO:0010223 )
symbiosis, encompassing mutualism through parasitism( GO:0044403 )
lateral root development( GO:0048527 )
multicellular organismal development( GO:0007275 )
auxin polar transport( GO:0009926 )
regulation of meristem structural organization( GO:0009934 )
shoot morphogenesis( GO:0010016 )
nucleus( GO:0005634 )
response to light stimulus( GO:0009416 )
auxin biosynthetic process( GO:0009851 )
response to water deprivation( GO:0009414 )
hormone-mediated signaling( GO:0009755 )
Trait Ontology leaf senescence( TO:0000249 )
stem length( TO:0000576 )
lateral root number( TO:0001013 )
mesocotyl length( TO:0000544 )
tillering ability( TO:0000329 )
stem elongation( TO:0006036 )
light intensity sensitivity( TO:0000460 )
plant height( TO:0000207 )
tiller angle( TO:0000567 )
gravity response trait( TO:0002693 )
shoot branching( TO:0002639 )
panicle number( TO:0000152 )
shoot anatomy and morphology trait( TO:0000077 )
plant growth hormone sensitivity( TO:0000401 )
nitrogen sensitivity( TO:0000011 )
seminal root length( TO:0000586 )
salt tolerance( TO:0006001 )
auxin content( TO:0002672 )
leaf lamina joint bending( TO:0002688 )
tiller number( TO:0000346 )
leaf width( TO:0000370 )
Plant Ontology axillary shoot system( PO:0006343 )
vascular leaf( PO:0009025 )
stem( PO:0009047 )
Related Strains
Phenotype images
Last updated
Nov 10, 2023