Gene - Detail

Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol PAL1
Gene Symbol Synonym OsPAL, Pal1*, Pal1, PAL, Pal_1, PalI, PAL2, OsPAL01, PAL01, OSPAL, CP-1, GP-1, OsPAL1, PAL3, OsPAL3
Gene Name Synonym phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1, Phe ammonia lyase 1
Chromosome No. 2
Explanation EC= P14717. X16099. GP-1 (genomic) and CP-1 (cDNA) in Minami et al. 1989. D48330. PAL2 in Xie el al. 2011. EF576408. GO:1901698: response to nitrogen compound. PAL3 in Wu et al. 2019.
Trait Class Tolerance and resistance - Disease resistance
Biochemical character
Vegetative organ - Culm
Tolerance and resistance
Tolerance and resistance - Stress tolerance
Tolerance and resistance - Insect resistance
Coloration - Anthocyanin
Vegetative organ - Leaf
cDNA Accession No. AK102817
MSU ID LOC_Os02g41630.2
RAP ID Os02g0626100
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link to INSD Accession List
Link map Classical linkage map
Gao Y., Xiang X., Zhang Y., Cao Y., Wang B., Zhang Y., Wang C., Jiang M., Duan W., Chen D., Zhan X., Cheng S., Liu Q., Cao L.
Int J Mol Sci 2022  23(2) 
Disruption of <i>OsPHD1</i>, Encoding a UDP-glucose epimerase, Causes JA Accumulation and Enhanced Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.
Wang H., Bi Y., Gao Y., Yan Y., Yuan X., Xiong X., Wang J., Liang J., Li D., Song F.
Front Plant Sci 2021  12  802758
A Pathogen-Inducible Rice NAC transcription factor ONAC096 Contributes to Immunity Against <i>Magnaprothe oryzae</i> and <i>Xanthomonas oryzae</i> pv. <i>oryzae</i> by Direct Binding to the Promoters of <i>OsRap2.6</i>, <i>OsWRKY62</i>, and <i>OsPAL1</i>.
Jiang J., Yang G., Xin Y., Wang Z., Yan W., Chen Z., Tang X., Xia J.
Genes (Basel) 2021  12(5) 
Overexpression of <i>OsMed16</i> Inhibits the Growth of Rice and Causes Spontaneous Cell Death.
Li N., Yang Z., Li J., Xie W., Qin X., Kang Y., Zhang Q., Li X., Xiao J., Ma H., Wang S.
Rice (N Y) 2021  14(1)  39
Two VQ Proteins are Substrates of the OsMPKK6-OsMPK4 Cascade in Rice Defense Against Bacterial Blight.
Xu R., Pan R., Zhang Y., Feng Y., Nath U.K., Gan Y., Shi C., Akhter D.
Int J Mol Sci 2021  22(18) 
RNA-Seq-Based Profiling of <i>pl</i> Mutant Reveals Transcriptional Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.).
He J., Liu Y., Yuan D., Duan M., Liu Y., Shen Z., Yang C., Qiu Z., Liu D., Wen P., Huang J., Fan D., Xiao S., Xin Y., Chen X., Jiang L., Wang H., Yuan L., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2020  117(1)  271-277
An R2R3 MYB transcription factor confers brown planthopper resistance by regulating the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway in rice.
Tang Y., Chun-Chun Gao, Gao Y., Yang Y., Shi B., Jia-Li Yu, Lyu C., Bao-Fa Sun, Hai-Lin Wang, Xu Y., Yun-Gui Yang, Chong K.
Dev. Cell 2020  53(3)  272-286.e7
OsNSUN2-Mediated 5-Methylcytosine mRNA Modification Enhances Rice Adaptation to High Temperature.
Khan A., Jalil S., Cao H., Tsago Y., Sunusi M., Chen Z., Shi C., Jin X.
Plants (Basel) 2020  9(11) 
The Purple Leaf (<i>pl6</i>) Mutation Regulates Leaf Color by Altering the Anthocyanin and Chlorophyll Contents in Rice.
Hong Y., Liu Q., Cao Y., Zhang Y., Chen D., Lou X., Cheng S., Cao L.
Front Plant Sci 2019  10  752
The <i>OsMPK15</i> Negatively Regulates <i>Magnaporthe oryza</i> and <i>Xoo</i> disease resistance via SA and JA Signaling Pathway in Rice.
Wu T., Peng C., Li B., Wu W., Kong L., Li F., Chu Z., Liu F., Ding X.
Rice (N Y) 2019  12(1)  90
OsPGIP1-Mediated Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak in Rice is Beyond Responsive to the Polygalacturonase of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.
Zaidi S.H.R., Zakari S.A., Zhao Q., Khan A.R., Shah J.M., Cheng F.
Antioxidants (Basel) 2019  8(11) 
Anthocyanin Accumulation in Black Kernel Mutant Rice and its Contribution to ROS Detoxification in Response to High Temperature at the Filling Stage.
Atul Prakash Sathe, Su X., Chen Z., Chen T., Wei X., Tang S., Xiao-Bo Zhang, Jian-Li Wu
Rice (N Y) 2019  12(1)  68
Identification and characterization of a spotted-leaf mutant spl40 with enhanced bacterial blight resistance in rice.
Oshima M., Taniguchi Y., Akasaka M., Abe K., Ichikawa H., Tabei Y., Tanaka J.
Breed. Sci. 2019  69(2)  244-254
Development of a visible marker trait based on leaf sheath-specific anthocyanin pigmentation applicable to various genotypes in rice.
Han Y., Song L., Peng C., Liu X., Liu L., Zhang Y., Wang W., Zhou J., Wang S., Ebbole D., Wang Z., Lu G.D.
Plant Physiol. 2019  179(4)  1416-1430
A <i>Magnaporthe</i> Chitinase Interacts with a Rice Jacalin-Related Lectin to Promote Host Colonization.
Fan J., Bai P., Ning Y., Wang J., Shi X., Xiong Y., Zhang K., He F., Zhang C., Wang R., Meng X., Zhou J., Wang M., Shirsekar G., Park C.H., Bellizzi M., Liu W., Jeon J.S., Xia Y., Shan L., Wang G.L.
Cell Host Microbe 2018  23(4)  498-510.e5
The Monocot-Specific Receptor-like Kinase SDS2 Controls Cell Death and Immunity in Rice.
Zhou X., Liao H., Chern M., Yin J., Chen Y., Wang J., Zhu X., Chen Z., Yuan C., Zhao W., Wang J., Li W., He M., Ma B., Wang J., Qin P., Chen W., Wang Y., Liu J., Qian Y., Wang W., Wu X., Li P., Zhu L., Li S., Ronald P.C., Chen X.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2018  115(12)  3174-3179
Loss of function of a rice TPR-domain RNA-binding protein confers broad-spectrum disease resistance.
Nanda S., Wan P.J., Yuan S.Y., Lai F.X., Wang W.X., Fu Q.
Int J Mol Sci 2018  19(12) 
Differential Responses of <i>OsMPK</i>s in IR56 Rice to Two BPH Populations of Different Virulence Levels.
Wang J., Islam F., Li L., Long M., Yang C., Jin X., Ali B., Mao B., Zhou W.
Int J Mol Sci 2017  18(9) 
Complementary RNA-Sequencing Based Transcriptomics and iTRAQ Proteomics Reveal the Mechanism of the Alleviation of Quinclorac Stress by Salicylic Acid in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica.
Wu L., Zhang W., Ding Y., Zhang J., Cambula E.D., Weng F., Liu Z., Ding C., Tang S., Chen L., Wang S., Li G.
Front Plant Sci 2017  8  881
Shading Contributes to the Reduction of Stem Mechanical Strength by Decreasing Cell Wall Synthesis in Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Kuang J., Liu J., Mei J., Wang C., Hu H., Zhang Y., Sun M., Ning X., Xiao L., Yang L.
Sci Rep 2017  7(1)  11333
A Class II small heat shock protein OsHsp18.0 plays positive roles in both biotic and abiotic defense responses in rice.
Zhang W., Wu L., Ding Y., Yao X., Wu X., Weng F., Li G., Liu Z., Tang S., Ding C., Wang S.
J. Plant Res. 2017   
Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).
You Q., Zhai K., Yang D., Yang W., Wu J., Liu J., Pan W., Wang J., Zhu X., Jian Y., Liu J., Zhang Y., Deng Y., Li Q., Lou Y., Xie Q., He Z.
Cell Host Microbe 2016  20(6)  758-769
An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase-BAG Protein Module Controls Plant Innate Immunity and Broad-Spectrum disease resistance.
Song A., Xue G., Cui P., Fan F., Liu H., Yin C., Sun W., Liang Y.
Sci Rep 2016  6  24640
The role of silicon in enhancing resistance to bacterial blight of hydroponic- and soil-cultured rice.
Yang X., Gong P., Li K., Huang F., Cheng F., Pan G.
J. Exp. Bot. 2016  67(9)  2761-76
A single cytosine deletion in the OsPLS1 gene encoding vacuolar-type H+-ATPase subunit A1 leads to premature leaf senescence and seed dormancy in rice.
Huang W.K., Ji H.L., Gheysen G., Kyndt T.
Mol. Plant Pathol. 2016  17(4)  614-24
Thiamine-induced priming against root-knot nematode infection in rice involves lignification and hydrogen peroxide generation.
Noda S., Koshiba T., Hattori T., Yamaguchi M., Suzuki S., Umezawa T.
Planta 2015  242(3)  589-600
The expression of a rice secondary wall-specific cellulose synthase gene, OsCesA7, is directly regulated by a rice transcription factor, OsMYB58/63.
Katsuragi Y., Takai R., Furukawa T., Hirai H., Morimoto T., Katayama T., Murakami T., Che F.S.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 2015   
CD2-1, the C-terminal region of flagellin, modulates the induction of immune responses in rice.
Duan L., Liu H., Li X., Xiao J., Wang S.
Physiol Plant 2014   
Multiple phytohormones and phytoalexins are involved in disease resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae invaded from roots in rice.
Wu Z., Gui S., Wang S., Ding Y.
BMC Evol. Biol. 2014  14  100
Molecular evolution and functional characterisation of an ancient phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (NnPAL1) from Nelumbo nucifera: novel insight into the evolution of the PAL family in angiosperms.
Tonnessen B.W., Manosalva P., Lang J.M., Baraoidan M., Bordeos A., Mauleon R., Oard J., Hulbert S., Leung H., Leach J.E.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2014   
Rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene OsPAL4 is associated with broad spectrum disease resistance.
Geng S., Li A., Tang L., Yin L., Wu L., Lei C., Guo X., Zhang X., Jiang G., Zhai W., Wei Y., Zheng Y., Lan X., Mao L.
J. Exp. Bot. 2013  64(11)  3125-36
TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.
Fang C., Zhuang Y., Xu T., Li Y., Li Y., Lin W.
J. Chem. Ecol. 2013  39(2)  204-12
Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.
Park H.L., Lee S.W., Jung K.H., Hahn T.R., Cho M.H.
Phytochemistry 2013  96  57-71
Transcriptomic analysis of UV-treated rice leaves reveals UV-induced phytoalexin biosynthetic pathways and their regulatory networks in rice.
Koshiba T.a, Hirose N.a, Mukai M.a, Yamamura M.a, Hattori T.a d, Suzuki S.a, Sakamoto M.b, Umezawa T.a c
Plant Biotechnology 2013  30  157-167
Characterization of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde O-methyltransferase in Oryza sativa
Rawal H.C., Singh N.K., Sharma T.R.
International Journal of Genomics 2013  2013  678969
Conservation, divergence, and genome-wide distribution of PAL and POX A gene families in plants
Wakabayashi K., Soga K., Hoson T.
J. Plant Physiol. 2012  169(3)  262-7
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cell wall peroxidase are cooperatively involved in the extensive formation of ferulate network in cell walls of developing rice shoots.
Liu H., Li X., Xiao J., Wang S.
Plant Methods 2012  8(1)  2
A convenient method for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites: application in study of rice-bacterium interaction.
Giberti S., Bertea C.M., Narayana R., Maffei M.E., Forlani G.
J. Plant Physiol. 2012  169(3)  249-54
Two phenylalanine ammonia lyase isoforms are involved in the elicitor-induced response of rice to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae.
Shen X., Liu H., Yuan B., Li X., Xu C., Wang S.
Plant Cell Environ. 2011  34(2)  179-91
OsEDR1 negatively regulates rice bacterial resistance via activation of ethylene biosynthesis.
Xie X.Z., Xue Y.J., Zhou J.J., Zhang B., Chang H., Takano M.
Mol Plant 2011  4(4)  688-96
Phytochromes regulate SA and JA signaling pathways in rice and are required for developmentally controlled resistance to Magnaporthe grisea.
Shen X,Yuan B,Liu H,Li X,Xu C,Wang S
Plant J. 2010  64(1)  86-99
Opposite functions of a rice mitogen-activated protein kinase in the process of resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae.
Tao Z,Liu H,Qiu D,Zhou Y,Li X,Xu C,Wang S
Plant Physiol. 2009  151(2)  936-48
A pair of allelic WRKY genes play opposite roles in rice-bacteria interactions.
Xiao,W., Liu,H., Li,Y., Li,X., Xu,C., Long,M. and Wang,S.
PLoS One 2009  4 (2)  E4603
A rice gene of de novo origin negatively regulates pathogen-induced defense response
Sudo E., Itouga M., Kayo Yoshida-Hatanaka, Ono Y., Sakakibara H.
J. Exp. Bot. 2008  59(12)  3465-74
Gene expression and sensitivity in response to copper stress in rice leaves.
Lin YZ,Chen HY,Kao R,Chang SP,Chang SJ,Lai EM
Phytochemistry 2008  69  715-28
Proteomic analysis of rice defense response induced by probenazole.
Takakura Y., Fang-Sik Che, Ishida Y., Tsutsumi F., Kurotani K., Usami S., Isogai A., Imaseki H.
Mol. Plant Pathol. 2008  9(4)  525-9
Expression of a bacterial flagellin gene triggers plant immune responses and confers disease resistance in transgenic rice plants.
Hai Hong Bi, Ren Sen Zeng, Li Ming Su, An M., Shi Ming Luo
J. Chem. Ecol. 2007  33(5)  1089-103
Rice allelopathy induced by methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate.
Yuan,B., Shen,X., Li,X., Xu,C. and Wang,S.
Planta. 2007  226(4)  953-960
Mitogen-activated protein kinase OsMPK6 negatively regulates rice disease resistance to bacterial pathogens
Mase K., Sato K., Nakano Y., Nishikubo N., Tsuboi Y., Zhou J., Kitano H., Katayama Y.
Plant Cell Rep. 2005  24(8)  487-93
The ectopic expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase with ectopic accumulation of polysaccharide-linked hydroxycinnamoyl esters in internode parenchyma of rice mutant Fukei 71.
Tanaka N., Fang-Sik Che, Watanabe N., Fujiwara S., Takayama S., Isogai A.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 2003  16(5)  422-8
Flagellin from an incompatible strain of Acidovorax avenae mediates H2O2 generation accompanying hypersensitive cell death and expression of PAL, Cht-1, and PBZ1, but not of Lox in rice.
Sakurai N., Katayama Y., Yamaya T.
Physiol Plant 2001  113(3)  400-408
Overlapping expression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in immature leaf blades of rice.
Minami,E., Ozeki,Y., Matsuoka,M., Koizuka,N. and Tanaka,Y.
Eur. J. Biochem. 1989  185(1)  19-25
Structure and some characterization of the gene for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from rice plants.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for PAL1 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0060593
Gene Ontology salicylic acid biosynthetic process( GO:0009697 )
response to UV( GO:0009411 )
response to heat( GO:0009408 )
ammonia ligase activity( GO:0016211 )
cytoplasm( GO:0005737 )
L-phenylalanine catabolic process( GO:0006559 )
anthocyanin biosynthetic process( GO:0009718 )
secondary cell wall biogenesis( GO:0009834 )
response to vitamin B1( GO:0010266 )
response to copper ion( GO:0046688 )
lignin biosynthetic process( GO:0009809 )
defense response to bacterium( GO:0042742 )
response to salicylic acid stimulus( GO:0009751 )
biosynthetic process( GO:0009058 )
phenylpropanoid metabolic process( GO:0009698 )
lignan biosynthetic process( GO:0009807 )
response to jasmonic acid stimulus( GO:0009753 )
ammonia-lyase activity( GO:0016841 )
response to molecule of bacterial origin( GO:0002237 )
response to light intensity( GO:0009642 )
response to herbicide( GO:0009635 )
defense response to insect( GO:0002213 )
defense response, incompatible interaction( GO:0009814 )
seed development( GO:0048316 )
Trait Ontology copper sensitivity( TO:0000021 )
nitrogen sensitivity( TO:0000011 )
stem strength( TO:0000051 )
light intensity sensitivity( TO:0000460 )
herbicide sensitivity( TO:0000058 )
seed development trait( TO:0000653 )
blast disease( TO:0000074 )
lignin content( TO:0000731 )
lignin biosynthesis trait( TO:0000733 )
allelopathic effect( TO:0000624 )
UV light sensitivity( TO:0000160 )
silicon sensitivity( TO:0000031 )
bacterial blight disease resistance( TO:0000175 )
brown planthopper resistance( TO:0000424 )
heat tolerance( TO:0000259 )
leaf color( TO:0000326 )
Plant Ontology seed development stage( PO:0001170 )
Related Strains
Phenotype images
Last updated
Jun 13, 2022