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Detail of Gene

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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol EF1
Gene Symbol Synonym Ef1 (Ef2), Ef2, Ef1, Ehd1, Eh1(t)*, EF1, ef1, qEHD-10-1(t) (qEhd1), OsRR30, OsRR22
Gene Name Synonym Earliness1, Earliness 1, Earliness-1, EARLY HEADING DATE 1, Early heading date1
Allele Ef1-a, Ef1-b, Ef1-gamma, Ef1-x, Ef1-n, ef1-h, ehd1, Ehd1-Nip, Ehd1-gla, ehd1-11
Chromosome No. 10
Explanation This gene controls basic vegetative growth period. Ef1-n which is one of the multiple alleles at Ef1 locus accelerates the heading day by 20 days earlier than the original line T65. AB092506 Dominant alleles of Ehd1 confer short-day promotion of heading. Taichung 65, a Japonica variety, possesses a recessive allele. Ehd1 encodes a B-type response regulator. Dominant allele from O. glaberrima (IRGC104038) causes early heading. O. glaberrima(IRGC104038). Ehd1 occupies the same locus as Ef1. B-type RR. B-TYPE RR. Q7Y0W5. PO:0009049; inflorescence. Ehd1 occupies the same locus as EF1. PO:0006318; floret (sensu Poaceae). GRO:0007048; 04-stem elongation stage ; GRO:0007044; 06-heading stage ; GRO:0007045; 09-mature grain stage. JN594327-JN594403 (O.sativa and other wild rice species). JN402157-JN402177 (O.sativa and other wild rice species). KC609243-KC610817 (O. sativa and wild rice species, partial cds).
Trait Class Reproductive organ - Heading date
Character as QTL - Yield and productivity
cDNA Accession No. Q7Y0W3
MSU ID LOC_Os10g32600.1
RAP ID Os10g0463400
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link map Classical linkage map
Yin Y., Yan Z., Guan J., Huo Y., Wang T., Li T., Cui Z., Ma W., Wang X., Chen W.
Plant Physiol. 2023  192(1)  205-221
Two interacting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors control flowering time in rice.
Zhang X., Feng Q., Miao J., Zhu J., Zhou C., Fan D., Lu Y., Tian Q., Wang Y., Zhan Q., Wang Z.Q., Wang A., Zhang L., Shangguan Y., Li W., Chen J., Weng Q., Huang T., Tang S., Si L., Huang X., Wang Z.X., Han B.
Plant Cell 2023   
The WD40 domain-containing protein Ehd5 positively regulates flowering in rice (Oryza sativa).
Gong F., Zhang K., Wen J., Yu S., Li W., Du G., Wu C., Zhu K., Xu Y.
Int J Mol Sci 2023  24(11) 
Rice OsMRG702 and Its Partner OsMRGBP Control flowering time through H4 Acetylation.
Fan X., Wang P., Qi F., Hu Y., Li S., Zhang J., Liang L., Zhang Z., Liu J., Xiong L., Xing Y.
J Genet Genomics 2023   
The CCT transcriptional activator Ghd2 constantly delays the heading date by upregulating CO3 in rice.
Lin X., Huang Y., Rao Y., Ouyang L., Zhou D., Zhu C., Fu J., Chen C., Yin J., Bian J., He H., Zou G., Xu J.
BMC Plant Biol. 2022  22(1)  612
A base substitution in OsphyC disturbs its Interaction with OsphyB and affects flowering time and chlorophyll synthesis in rice.
Shim Y., Lim C., Seong G., Choi Y., Kang K., Paek N.C.
Plant Cell Environ. 2022  45(8)  2446-2459
The AP2/ERF transcription factor LATE FLOWERING SEMI-DWARF suppresses long-day-dependent repression of flowering.
Lu S., Zhang N., Xu Y., Chen H., Huang J., Zou B.
Int J Mol Sci 2022  23(21) 
Functional Conservation and Divergence of <i>mos1</i> That Controls Flowering Time and seed size in Rice and <i>Arabidopsis</i>.
Cai Z., Zhang Y., Tang W., Chen X., Lin C., Liu Y., Ye Y., Wu W., Duan Y.
Front Plant Sci 2022  13  853042
LUX ARRHYTHMO Interacts With ELF3a and ELF4a to Coordinate Vegetative Growth and Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
Sun C., Zhang K., Zhou Y., Xiang L., He C., Zhong C., Li K., Wang Q., Yang C., Wang Q., Chen C., Chen D., Wang Y., Liu C., Yang B., Wu H., Chen X., Li W., Wang J., Xu P., Wang P., Fang J., Chu C., Deng X.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2021  19(8)  1644-1657
Dual function of clock component OsLHY sets critical day length for photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Liang L., Zhang Z., Cheng N., Liu H., Song S., Hu Y., Zhou X., Zhang J., Xing Y.
Plant Cell Environ. 2021  44(3)  842-855
The transcriptional repressor OsPRR73 links circadian clock and photoperiod pathway to control heading date in rice.
Yoon H., Shim Y., Yoo S.C., Kang K., Paek N.C.
Int J Mol Sci 2021  22(3) 
The Rice CHD3/Mi-2 Chromatin Remodeling Factor Rolled Fine Striped Promotes Flowering Independent of Photoperiod.
Du K., Luo Q., Yin L., Wu J., Liu Y., Gan J., Dong A., Shen W.H.
Nat Commun 2020  11(1)  5717
OsChz1 acts as a histone chaperone in modulating chromatin organization and genome function in rice.
Osnato M., Matias-Hernandez L., Aguilar-Jaramillo AE., Kater M.M., Pelaz S.
Plant Physiol. 2020  183(4)  1663-1680
Genes of the <i>RAV</i> Family Control Heading Date and Carpel Development in Rice.
Chai J., Zhu S., Li C., Wang C., Cai M., Zheng X., Zhou L., Zhang H., Sheng P., Wu M., Jin X., Cheng Z., Zhang X., Lei C., Ren Y., Lin Q., Zhou S., Guo X., Wang J., Zhao Z., Wan J.
Plant Biotechnol. J. 2020   
Osre1 interacts with OsRIP1 to regulate rice heading date by finely modulating Ehd1 expression.
Liu B., Liu Y., Wang B., Luo Q., Shi J., Gan J., Wen-Hui Shen, Yu Y., Dong A.
Nat Commun 2019  10(1)  2999
The transcription factor OsSUF4 interacts with SDG725 in promoting H3K36me3 establishment.
Cui Y., Zhu M., Xu Z., Xu Q.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2019  132(6)  1887-1896
Assessment of the effect of ten heading time genes on reproductive transition and yield components in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Cai M., Chen S., Wu M., Zheng T., Zhou L., Li C., Zhang H., Wang J., Xu X., Chai J., Ren Y., Guo X., Zhang X., Lei C., Cheng Z., Wang J., Jiang L., Zhai H., Wang H., Zhu S., Wan J.
Plant Cell Rep. 2019  38(5)  521-532
Early heading 7 interacts with DTH8, and regulates flowering time in rice.
Fang M., Zhou Z., Zhou X., Yang H., Li M., Li H.
PeerJ 2019  7  e6422
Overexpression of <i>OsFTL10</i> induces early flowering and improves drought tolerance in <i>Oryza sativa</i> L.
Guo S., Dai S., Singh P.K., Wang H., Wang Y., Tan J.L.H., Wee W., Ito T.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  555
A Membrane-Bound NAC-Like Transcription Factor OsNTL5 Represses the Flowering in <i>Oryza sativa</i>.
Zeng L., Liu X., Zhou Z., Li D., Zhao X., Zhu L., Luo Y., Hu S.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  157
Identification of a G2-like transcription factor, OsPHL3, functions as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by co-expression and reverse genetic analysis.
Chen J.Y., Zhang H.W., Zhang H.L., Ying J.Z., Ma L.Y., Zhuang J.Y.
BMC Plant Biol. 2018  18(1)  112
Natural variation at qHd1 affects heading date acceleration at high temperatures with pleiotropism for yield traits in rice.
Kim S.R., Torollo G., Yoon M.R., Kwak J., Lee C.K., Prahalada G.D., Choi I.R., Yeo U.S., Jeong O.Y., Jena K.K., Lee J.S.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  1827
Loss-of-Function Alleles of <i>Heading date 1</i> (<i>Hd1</i>) Are Associated With Adaptation of Temperate <i>Japonica</i> Rice Plants to the Tropical Region.
Zhu C., Peng Q., Fu D., Zhuang D., Yu Y., Duan M., Xie W., Cai Y., Ouyang Y., Lian X., Wu C.
Plant Cell 2018  30(10)  2352-2367
The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Modulates Circadian Accumulation of EARLY FLOWERING3 to Control heading date in Rice under Long-Day Conditions.
Song S., Wang G., Hu Y., Liu H., Bai X., Qin R., Xing Y.
J. Exp. Bot. 2018  69(18)  4283-4293
OsMFT1 increases spikelets per panicle and delays heading date in rice by suppressing Ehd1, FZP and SEPALLATA-like genes.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Wai A.H., An G.
Mol. Cells 2018  41(7)  665-675
<i>Histone Deacetylase 701 (HDT701)</i> Induces Flowering in Rice by Modulating Expression of <i>OsIDS1</i>.
He Q., Yang L., Hu W., Zhang J., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2018  8(1)  14051
Overexpression of an auxin receptor OsAFB6 significantly enhanced grain yield by increasing cytokinin and decreasing auxin concentrations in rice panicle.
Gong R., Cao H., Zhang J., Xie K., Wang D., Yu S.
Plant J. 2018  94(1)  32-47
Divergent functions of the GAGA-binding transcription factor family in rice.
Jiang P., Wang S., Jiang H., Cheng B., Wu K., Ding Y.
Plant Physiol. 2018  176(4)  2761-2771
The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice.
Wu W., Zhang Y., Zhang M., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Chen D., Liu Q., Sinumporn S., Hussain K., Cheng S., Cao L.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2018  495(1)  1349-1355
The RICE CONSTANS-like protein OsCOL15 suppresses flowering by promoting Ghd7 and repressing RID1.
Wang W., Hu B., Yuan D., Liu Y., Che R., Hu Y., Ou S., Liu Y., Zhang Z., Wang H., Li H., Jiang Z., Zhang Z., Gao X., Qiu Y., Meng X., Liu Y., Bai Y., Liang Y., Wang Y., Zhang L., Li L., Sodmergen, Jing H., Li J., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2018  30(3)  638-651
Expression of the Nitrate Transporter Gene <i>OsNRT1.1A/OsNPF6.3</i> Confers High Yield and Early Maturation in Rice.
Jiang P., Wang S., Zheng H., Li H., Zhang F., Su Y., Xu Z., Lin H., Qian Q., Ding Y.
New Phytol. 2018  219(1)  422-435
SIP1 participates in regulation of flowering time in rice by recruiting OsTrx1 to Ehd1.
Wu W., Zheng X.M., Chen D., Zhang Y., Ma W., Zhang H., Sun L., Yang Z., Zhao C., Zhan X., Shen X., Yu P., Fu Y., Zhu S., Cao L., Cheng S.
Plant Sci. 2017  260  60-69
OsCOL16, encoding a CONSTANS-like protein, represses flowering by up-regulating Ghd7 expression in rice.
Cui D., Tang C., Li J., A X., Yu T., Ma X., Zhang E., Wang Y., Cao G., Xu F., Dai L., Han L., Koh H.J.
PLoS ONE 2017  12(4)  e0175731
Genetic structure and isolation by altitude in rice landraces of Yunnan, China revealed by nucleotide and microsatellite marker polymorphisms.
Wu Q., Liu X., Yin D., Yuan H., Xie Q., Zhao X., Li X., Zhu L., Li S., Li D.
BMC Plant Biol. 2017  17(1)  166
Constitutive expression of OsDof4, encoding a C2-C2 zinc finger transcription factor, confesses its distinct flowering effects under long- and short-day photoperiods in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Brambilla V., Martignago D., Goretti D., Cerise M., Somssich M., de Rosa M., Galbiati F., Shrestha R., Lazzaro F., Simon R., Fornara F.
Plant Cell 2017  29(11)  2801-2816
Antagonistic Transcription Factor Complexes Modulate the Floral Transition in Rice.
Du A., Tian W., Wei M., Yan W., He H., Zhou D., Huang X., Li S., Ouyang X.
Mol Plant 2017  10(7)  948-961
The DTH8-Hd1 module Mediates Day-Length-Dependent Regulation of Rice Flowering.
Zhu S., Wang J., Cai M., Zhang H., Wu F., Xu Y., Li C., Cheng Z., Zhang X., Guo X., Sheng P., Wu M., Wang J., Lei C., Wang J., Zhao Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.
J. Exp. Bot. 2017  68(3)  553-568
The OsHAPL1-DTH8-Hd1 complex functions as the transcription regulator to repress heading date in rice.
Deng L., Li L., Zhang S., Shen J., Li S., Hu S., Peng Q., Xiao J., Wu C.
PLoS Genet. 2017  13(2)  e1006642
Suppressor of RID1 (SID1) shares common targets with RID1 on florigen genes to initiate floral transition in rice.
Tan J., Wu F., Wan J.
Plant Signal Behav 2017  12(1)  e1267893
Flowering time regulation by the CONSTANS-like gene OsCOL10.
Li C., Zhu S., Zhang H., Chen L., Cai M., Wang J., Chai J., Wu F., Cheng Z., Guo X., Zhang X., Wan J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2017  486(3)  720-725
OsLBD37 and OsLBD38, two class II type LBD proteins, are involved in the regulation of heading date by controlling the expression of Ehd1 in rice.
Liu K., Yu Y., Dong A., Shen W.H.
New Phytol. 2017  215(2)  609-623
SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.
Nemoto Y., Nonoue Y., Yano M., Izawa T.
Plant J. 2016   
Hd1,a CONSTANS Orthlog in Rice, Functions as an Ehd1 Repressor Through Interaction with Monocot-Specific CCT-Domain Protein Ghd7.
Sun X., Zhang Z., Wu J., Cui X., Feng D., Wang K., Xu M., Zhou L., Han X., Gu X., Lu T.
PLoS Genet. 2016  12(3)  e1005927
The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.
Jeong H.J., Yang J., Cho L.H., An G.
Plant Cell Rep. 2016  35(4)  905-20
OsVIL1 controls flowering time in rice by suppressing OsLF under short days and by inducing Ghd7 under long days.
Bai B., Zhao J., Li Y., Zhang F., Zhou J., Chen F., Xie X.
Plant Sci. 2016  247  25-34
OsBBX14 delays heading date by repressing florigen gene expression under long and short-day conditions in rice.
Tan J., Jin M., Wang J., Wu F., Sheng P., Cheng Z., Wang J., Zheng X., Chen L., Wang M., Zhu S., Guo X., Zhang X., Liu X., Wang C., Wang H., Wu C., Wan J.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2016  57(4)  798-812
OsCOL10, a CONSTANS-like Gene, Functions as a flowering time Repressor Downstream of Ghd7 in Rice.
Du Y., He W., Deng C., Chen X., Gou L., Zhu F., Guo W., Zhang J., Wang T.
PLoS ONE 2016  11(3)  e0150458
Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates flowering time and Yield Potential by Affecting histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).
Wang J., Wu F., Zhu S., Xu Y., Cheng Z., Wang J., Li C., Sheng P., Zhang H., Cai M., Guo X., Zhang X., Wang C., Wan J.
FEBS Lett. 2016   
Overexpression of OsMYB1R1-VP64 fusion protein increases grain yield in rice by delaying flowering time.
Sheng P., Wu F., Tan J., Zhang H., Ma W., Chen L., Wang J., Wang J., Zhu S., Guo X., Wang J., Zhang X., Cheng Z., Bao Y., Wu C., Liu X., Wan J.
Plant Mol. Biol. 2016  92(1-2)  209-22
A CONSTANS-like transcriptional activator, OsCOL13, functions as a negative regulator of flowering downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1 in rice.
Liu H., Gu F., Dong S., Liu W., Wang H., Chen Z., Wang J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016  479(2)  173-178
CONSTANS-like 9 (COL9) delays the flowering time in Oryza sativa by repressing the Ehd1 pathway.
Cho L.H., Yoon J., Pasriga R., An G.
Plant Physiol. 2016  170(4)  2159-71
Homodimerization of Ehd1 Is Required to Induce Flowering in Rice.
Han S.H., Yoo S.C., Lee B.D., An G., Paek N.C.
Plant Cell Environ. 2015   
Rice FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (OsFKF1) promotes flowering independent of photoperiod.
Yang Y., Fu D., Zhu C., He Y., Zhang H., Liu T., Li X., Wu C.
Plant Cell 2015   
The RING-Finger Ubiquitin Ligase HAF1 Mediates heading date 1 Degradation during Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice.
Kim S.K., Park H.Y., Jang Y.H., Lee K.C., Chung Y.S., Lee J.H., Kim J.K.
Planta 2015   
OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice.
Zhang L., Li Q., Dong H., He Q., Liang L., Tan C., Han Z., Yao W., Li G., Zhao H., Xie W., Xing Y.
Sci Rep 2015  5  7663
Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice.
Jin J., Shi J., Liu B., Liu Y., Huang Y., Yu Y., Dong A.
Plant Physiol. 2015   
MRG702, a reader protein of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, is involved in brassinosteroid-regulated growth and flowering time control in rice.
Yokoo T., Saito H., Yoshitake Y., Xu Q., Asami T., Tsukiyama T., Teraishi M., Okumoto Y., Tanisaka T.
PLoS ONE 2014  9(4)  e96064
Se14, encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, plays key roles in long-day suppression of rice flowering through the demethylation of H3K4me3 of RFT1.
Liu X., Zhou C., Zhao Y., Zhou S., Wang W., Dao-Xiu Zhou
Front Plant Sci 2014  5  591
The rice enhancer of zeste [E(z)] genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in long day and short day signaling to mediate the accurate photoperiod control of flowering time.
Zhu,T., Xu,P.Z., Liu,J.P., Peng,S., Mo,X.C. and Gao,L.Z.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2014  70  348-361
Phylogenetic relationships and genome divergence among the AA- genome species of the genus Oryza as revealed by 53 nuclear genes and 16 intergenic regions
Chen J., Li X., Cheng C., Wang Y., Qin M., Zhu H., Zeng R., Fu X., Liu Z., Zhang G.
Sci Rep 2014  4  4263
Characterization of epistatic interaction of QTLs LH8 and EH3 controlling heading date in rice.
Xu Q., Saito H., Hirose I., Katsura K., Yoshitake Y., Yokoo T., Tsukiyama T., Teraishi M., Tanisaka T., Okumoto Y.
Molecular Breeding 2014  33  813-819
The effects of the photoperiod-insensitive alleles, se13, hd1 and ghd7, on yield components in rice
Gao H., Jin M., Zheng X.M., Chen J., Yuan D., Xin Y., Wang M., Huang D., Zhang Z., Zhou K., Sheng P., Ma J., Ma W., Deng H., Jiang L., Liu S., Wang H., Wu C., Yuan L., Wan J.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014   
Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.
Cai Y., Chen X., Xie K., Xing Q., Wu Y., Li J., Du C., Sun Z., Guo Z.
PLoS ONE 2014  9(7)  e102529
Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.
Ikeda M., Miura K., Aya K., Kitano H., Matsuoka M.
Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2013  16(2)  213-20
Genes offering the potential for designing yield-related traits in rice.
Gao H., Zheng X.M., Fei G., Chen J., Jin M., Ren Y., Wu W., Zhou K., Sheng P., Zhou F., Jiang L., Wang J., Zhang X., Guo X., Wang J.L., Cheng Z., Wu C., Wang H., Wan J.M.
PLoS Genet. 2013  9(2)  e1003281
Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Yang J., Lee S., Hang R., Kim S.R., Lee Y.S., Cao X., Amasino R., An G.
Plant J. 2013  73(4)  566-78
OsVIL2 functions with PRC2 to induce flowering by repressing OsLFL1 in rice.
Lu,L., Yan,W., Xue,W., Shao,D. and Xing,Y.
PLoS ONE 2012  7 (5)  E34021
Evolution and association analysis of ghd7 in rice
Tsai Y.C., Weir N.R., Hill K., Zhang W., Kim H.J., Shiu S.H., Schaller G.E., Kieber J.J.
Plant Physiol. 2012  158(4)  1666-84
Characterization of genes involved in cytokinin signaling and metabolism from rice.
Liu S., Wang F., Gao L.J., Li J.H., Li R.B., Gao H.L., Deng G.F., Yang J.S., Luo X.J.
Breed. Sci. 2012  62(4)  310-9
Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Huang,C.L., Hung,C.Y., Chiang,Y.C., Hwang,C.C., Hsu,T.W., Huang,C.C., Hung,K.H., Tsai,K.C., Wang,K.H., Osada,N., Schaal,B.A. and Chiang,T.Y.
Plant J. 2012  70(5)  769-782
Footprints of natural and artificial selection for photoperiod pathway genes in Oryza
Wei X., Qiao W.H., Chen Y.T., Wang R.S., Cao L.R., Zhang W.X., Yuan N.N., Li Z.C., Zeng H.L., Yang Q.W.
Mol. Ecol. 2012  21(20)  5073-87
Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon.
Endo-Higashi N. , Izawa T.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2011  52(6)  1083-94
Flowering Time Genes Heading date 1 and Early heading date 1 Together Control Panicle Development in Rice.
Li C., Huang L., Xu C., Zhao Y., Zhou D.X.
PLoS ONE 2011  6(7)  e21789
Altered levels of histone deacetylase OsHDT1 affect differential gene expression patterns in hybrid rice.
Wei X., Xu J., Guo H., Jiang L., Chen S., Yu C., Zhou Z., Hu P., Zhai H., Wan J.
Plant Physiol. 2010  153(4)  1747-1758
DTH8 suppresses flowering in rice, influencing plant height and yield potential simultaneously.
Saito H,Yuan Q,Okumoto Y,Doi K,Yoshimura A,Inoue H,Teraishi M,Tsukiyama T,Tanisaka T
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2009  119  315-23
Multiple alleles at Early flowering 1 locus making variation in the basic vegetative growth period in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Takahashi Y,Teshima KM,Yokoi S,Innan H,Shimamoto K
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009  106  4555-60
Variations in Hd1 proteins, Hd3a promoters, and Ehd1 expression levels contribute to diversity of flowering time in cultivated rice.
Choong-Hwan Ryu, Lee S., Lae-Hyeon Cho, Song Lim Kim, Yang-Seok Lee, Sang Chul Choi, Hee Joong Jeong, Yi J., Soon Ju Park, Chang-Deok Han, An G.
Plant Cell Environ. 2009  32(10)  1412-27
OsMADS50 and OsMADS56 function antagonistically in regulating long day (LD)-dependent flowering in rice.
Xiangjin Wei a, Ling Jiang a, Junfeng Xu a, Wenwei Zhang a, Guangwen Lu a, Yongsheng Zhang a and Jianmin Wan
Field Crops Research 2008  107  147-154
Genetic analyses of heading date of Japonica rice cultivars from Northeast China
Matsubara,K., Kono,I., Hori,K., Nonoue,Y., Ono,N., Shomura,A., Mizubayashi,T., Yamamoto,S., Yamanouchi,U., Shirasawa,K., Nishio,T. and Yano,M.
Theor. Appl. Genet. 2008  117(6)  935-945
Novel QTLs for photoperiodic flowering revealed by using reciprocal backcross inbred lines from crosses between japonica rice cultivars
Park SJ,Kim SL,Lee S,Je BI,Piao HL,Park SH,Kim CM,Ryu CH,Park SH,Xuan YH,Colasanti J,An G,Han CD
Plant J. 2008  56  1018-29
Rice Indeterminate 1 (OsId1) is necessary for the expression of Ehd1 (Early heading date 1) regardless of photoperiod.
Jiang L,Xu J,Wei X,Wang S,Tang J,Zhai H,Wan J
J Genet Genomics 2007  34  46-55
The inheritance of early heading in the rice variety USSR5.
Kim SL,Lee S,Kim HJ,Nam HG,An G
Plant Physiol. 2007  145  1484-94
OsMADS51 is a short-day flowering promoter that functions upstream of Ehd1, OsMADS14, and Hd3a.
Peng LT,Shi ZY,Li L,Shen GZ,Zhang JL
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007  360  251-6
Ectopic expression of OsLFL1 in rice represses Ehd1 by binding on its promoter.
G Eric Schaller, Doi K., Hwang I., Joseph J Kieber, Jitendra P Khurana, Kurata N., Mizuno T., Pareek A., Shin-Han Shiu, Wu P., Wing Kin Yip
Plant Physiol. 2007  143(2)  555-7
Nomenclature for two-component signaling elements of rice.
Ito,Y. and Kurata,N.
Gene 2006  382  57-65
Identification and characterization of cytokinin-signalling gene families in rice.
A. Yoshimura and Y. Nagato
RGN 2005  22  6-8
A. Report of the Committee on Gene Symbolization, Nomenclature and Linkage Groups.
Doi, K., T. Izawa, T. Fuse, U. Yamanouchi, T. Kubo, Z. Shimatani, M. Yano, and A. Yoshimura
Genes Dev. 2004  18  926-936
Ehd1, a B-type response regulator in rice, confers short-day promotion of flowering and controls FT-like gene expression independently of Hd1.
Sanchez, P.L., Sobrizal, K. Ikeda, H. Yasui & A. Yoshimura
RGN 2001  18  57-59.
RFLP mapping of genes controlling heading date found in Oryza glumaepatula Steud. introgression lines in rice.
Tsai, K.H.
RGN 2000  17  45-46.
ef1 like plants produced from crosses between Ef1 lines.
Chang, S.H., M.S. Chang, N.T. Hu and K.H. Tsai
RGN 2000  17  42-44.
Repeating backcrosses for induced earliness gene, Ef1-x.
Doi, K. and A. Yoshimura
RGN 1998  15  148-149
RFLP mapping of a gene for heading date in an African rice.
Inoue, H., H. Nishida, Y. Okumoto and T. Tanisaka
Breeding Science 1998  48  103-108.
Identification of an early heading time gene found in the Taiwanese rice cultivar Taichung 65.
Tsai, K.H.
RGN 1997  14  69-72.
Photoperiodic responses of the earliness gene, Ef1.
Okumoto, Y., H. Inoue, K. Ichitani and T. Tanisaka
Rice Genetics III. IRRI, Manila, Philippines. 1996    423-427.
Effects of three genes that control heading date (Se1, E1 and Ef1) in four varietal groups of japonica rice.
Sato, S., S. Irei and C. Shinjyo
Breeding Science 1996  46(Suppl. 2)  77
Estimation of distribution of an earliness gene Ef-1 in Japanese improved rice varieties.
Ichitani, K., Y. Nishida, Y. Okumoto and T. Tanisaka
Breeding Science 1996  46(Suppl. 2)  66
Gene analysis of rice varieties grown in Taiwan with special reference to Se-1 and Ef-1 loci.
Ichitani, K., H. Nishida, Y. Nishida, Y. Okumoto and T. Tanisaka
Breeding Science 1995  45(Suppl. 2)  180
Complementary effect of heading-time genes, Se-1 and ef-1, on basic vegetative growth in rice.
Tsai, K.H.
Jpn. J. Genet. 1995  70  555-562.
Genetic analysis for heading time in wild rice strains.
Sato, S. and C. Shinjyo
Breeding Science 1995  45  45-49.
Identification of earliness genes derived from 15 reciprocal translocation homozygotes of rice, Oryza sativa L.
Sato, S., A. Tamaki and C. Shinjyo
Proc. 7th Intern. Congress SABRAO & Intern Symp. WSAA, Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, Taiwan, R.O.C. 1994  I.  109-119.
Does an earliness gene Ef-1 shorten pleiotropically anther length in rice ? In Toward enhanced and sustainable agricultural productivity in 2000's: Breeding research and biotechnology.
Tsai, K.H.
Proc. 7th Intern. Congress SABRAO & Intern Symp. WSAA, Taichung District Agricultural Improvement Station, Taiwan, R.O.C. 1994  I.  101-108.
Lateness lines with ef-1 alleles produced from a cross between two early rice varieties having Ef-1 alleles. In Toward enhanced and sustainable agricultural productivity in 2000's: Breeding research and biotechnology.
Sato, S., L. Sakamoto, K. Shirakawa and S. Nakasone
Japan. J. Breed. 1988  38(4)  385-396.
Chromosomal location of earliness gene Ef1 of rice, Oryza sativa L.
Sato, S. and K. Shirakawa
Japan. J. Breed. 1986  36(Suppl. 1)  354-355.
Determination of an earliness gene locus on Nishimura's seventh chromosome of rice, Oryza sativa L.
Tsai, K.H.
RGN 1986  3  71-72.
Genes controlling heading time found in a tropical Japonica variety.
Sato, S., L. Sakamoto and S. Nakasone
RGN 1985  2  59-60.
Location of Ef-1 for earliness on Nishimura's seventh chromosome.
Tsai, K.H.
Jpn. J. Genet. 1976  51(2)  115-128.
Studies on earliness genes in rice, with spacial reference to analysis of isoalleles at the Ef locus.
Tsai, K.H. and H.I. Oka
Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 1966  72(2)  54-70.
Genetic studies of yielding capacity and adaptability in crop plants. 2. Analysis of genes controling heading time in Taichung 65 and other rice varieties.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for EF1 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0060278
Gene Ontology flower development( GO:0009908 )
two-component response regulator activity( GO:0000156 )
regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent( GO:0006355 )
transcription factor activity( GO:0003700 )
DNA binding( GO:0003677 )
nucleus( GO:0005634 )
transcription( GO:0006350 )
regulation of photoperiodism, flowering( GO:2000028 )
two-component signal transduction system (phosphorelay)( GO:0000160 )
photoperiodism( GO:0009648 )
positive regulation of short-day photoperiodism, flowering( GO:0048576 )
Trait Ontology panicle size( TO:0006032 )
filled grain number( TO:0000447 )
days to heading( TO:0000137 )
photoperiod sensitivity( TO:0000229 )
yield trait( TO:0000371 )
days to maturity( TO:0000469 )
grain number( TO:0002759 )
inflorescence branching( TO:0000050 )
Plant Ontology spikelet floret( PO:0009082 )
seed( PO:0009010 )
portion of meristem tissue( PO:0009013 )
inflorescence( PO:0009049 )
Related Strains
Phenotype images
Last updated
Jan 15, 2024