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Basic Information
CGSNL Gene Symbol D18
Gene Symbol Synonym d18-h (d18-I, d18h), dwf15, d25, d18, d18-k, d18-AD, d18-dy, OsGA3ox2, ga3ox2, OsGA3OX2, GA3OX2, OsGA3ox-2, GA3ox-2, GA3ox1
CGSNL Gene Name DWARF 18
Gene Name Synonym hosetsu-waisei(d18-h), Akibare waisei(d18-AD), Waito-D(d18-dy),Kotaketamanishiki(d18-k),GA 3beta-hydroxylase2, GA 3beta-hydroxylase 2, GA 3-oxidase 2, Gibberellin(GA)-3 beta-hydroxylase-2
Allele d18-h, d18-AD, d18-dy, d18-k
Chromosome No. 1
Explanation One of the alleles of d18. Plant is about 15cm high with stout dark green leaves but haing nearly normal grains. Significant response to gibberellin. Mutant at OsGA3ox2 locus. PO:0009047; stem ; PO:0009049; inflorescence ; PO:0009025; leaf. GRO:0007048; 04-stem elongation stage ; GRO:0007044; 06-heading stage ; GRO:0007045; 09-mature grain stage. This gene controls some steps of gibberelline synthesis. The defect of this process causes dwarfism of rice. This gene corresponds to the location of D18 gene, at the distal end of short arm of Chromosome 1. Loss of function of this gene induces d18 dwarf. GA 3beta-hydroxylase, Putative 3b-hydroxylase. PO:0000003; whole plant ; PO:0009046; flower. EU179398-EU179402 (wild rice species). GA3ox1 in Zhao et al. 2016, Nie et al. 2022.
Trait Class Biochemical character
Vegetative organ - Culm
Tolerance and resistance - Stress tolerance
cDNA Accession No. AB056518
MSU ID LOC_Os01g08220.1
RAP ID Os01g0177400
Links Oryzabase Chromosome View ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
RAP-DB ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
Related IDs List ( IRGSP 1.0 / Build5 )
INSD Accession List
(Test version)
Link map Classical linkage map
Huang Y., Song J., Hao Q., Mou C., Wu H., Zhang F., Zhu Z., Wang P., Ma T., Fu K., Chen Y., Nguyen T., Liu S., Jiang L., Wan J.
Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2023  202  107923
WEAK seed dormancy 1, an aminotransferase protein, regulates seed dormancy in rice through the GA and ABA pathways.
Zhang Y., Gan L., Zhang Y., Huang B., Wan B., Li J., Tong L., Zhou X., Wei Z., Li Y., Song Z., Zhang X., Cai D., He Y.
Plant J. 2023   
OsCBL5-CIPK1-pp23 module enhances rice grain size and weight through the gibberellin pathway.
Huang Y., Li J., Huang Q.
Sci Rep 2022  12(1)  17847
Physiologic and molecular responses of indica-japonica subspecies tetraploid rice seed germination to ion beams.
Nie L., Song S., Yin Q., Zhao T., Liu H., He A., Wang W.
Rice (N Y) 2022  15(1)  19
Enhancement in Seed Priming-Induced Starch Degradation of Rice Seed Under Chilling Stress via GA-Mediated alpha-amylase Expression.
Yachun Y., Juan L., Hao L., Zuntao X., Ruiying Q., Wenge W., Pengcheng W., Yong D., Jianbo Y.
Rice Science 2021  28(4)  313-316
SDF5 Encoding P450 Protein Is Required for Internode Elongation in Rice
Hsieh K.T., Chen Y.T., Hu T.J., Lin S.M., Hsieh C.H., Liu S.H., Shiue S.Y., Lo S.F., Wang I.W., Tseng C.S., Chen L.J.
Rice (N Y) 2021  14(1)  70
Comparisons within the Rice GA 2-Oxidase Gene Family Revealed Three Dominant Paralogs and a Functional Attenuated Gene that Led to the Identification of Four Amino Acid Variants Associated with GA Deactivation Capability.
Ma Z., Wu T., Huang K., Jin Y.M., Li Z., Chen M., Yun S., Zhang H., Yang X., Chen H., Bai H., Du L., Ju S., Guo L., Bian M., Hu L., Du X., Jiang W.
Front Plant Sci 2020  11  709
A Novel AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, OsRPH1, Negatively Regulates plant height in Rice.
Tang Y., Liu H., Guo S., Wang B., Li Z., Chong K., Xu Y.
Plant Physiol. 2018  176(1)  946-959
OsmiR396d Affects Gibberellin and Brassinosteroid Signaling to Regulate Plant Architecture in Rice.
Liu L., Xia W., Li H., Zeng H., Wei B., Han S., Yin C.
Front Plant Sci 2018  9  275
Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing alpha-amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content.
Xie Y., Zhang Y., Han J., Luo J., Li G., Huang J., Wu H., Tian Q., Zhu Q., Chen Y., Kawano Y., Liu Y.G., Chen L.
Mol Plant 2018  11(5)  720-735
The Intronic cis Element SE1 Recruits trans-Acting Repressor Complexes to Repress the Expression of ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1 in Rice.
Xiao Y., Liu D., Zhang G., Tong H., Chu C.
Front Plant Sci 2017  8  1698
Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT interacting protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in Rice.
Wang J., Wang R., Wang Y., Zhang L., Zhang L., Xu Y., Yao S.
Plant J. 2017   
SHORT and Solid Culm/RFL/APO2 for culm development in rice.
Li C., Liu Y., Shen W.H., Yu Y., Dong A.
J Integr Plant Biol 2017   
Chromatin-remodeling factor OsINO80 is involved in regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis and is crucial for rice plant growth and development.
Tong H., Chu C.
Plant Cell 2016  28(4)  833-5
Reply: Brassinosteroid Regulates Gibberellin Synthesis to Promote Cell Elongation in Rice: Critical Comments on Ross and Quittenden's Letter.
Zhao J., Li M., Gu D., Liu X., Zhang J., Wu K., Zhang X., Teixeira da Silva JA., Duan J.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016  470(2)  439-44
Involvement of rice histone deacetylase HDA705 in seed germination and in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.
El-Kereamy A., Bi Y.M., Mahmood K., Ranathunge K., Yaish M.W., Nambara E., Rothstein S.J.
Front Plant Sci 2015  6  934
Overexpression of the CC-type glutaredoxin, OsGRX6 affects hormone and nitrogen status in rice plants.
Zhou W., Malabanan P.B., Abrigo E.
Euphytica 2014  201  97-107
OsHox4 regulates GA signaling by interacting with DELLA-like genes and GA oxidase genes in rice
Tong H.a, Xiao Y.a, Liu D.a, Gao S.a, Liu L.a, Yin Y.b, Jin Y.c, Qian Q.d, Chu C.a
Plant Cell 2014  26  4376-4393
Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in ricec w open
Guo X., Hou X., Fang J., Wei P., Xu B., Chen M., Feng Y., Chu C.
Plant J. 2013  75(3)  403-16
The rice GERMINATION DEFECTIVE1, encoding a B3 domain transcriptional repressor, regulates seed germination and seedling development by integrating GA and carbohydrate metabolism.
Tang X., Zhang Z.-Y., Zhang W.-J., Zhao X.-M., Li X., Zhang D., Liu Q.-Q., Tang W.-H.
Plant Physiol. 2010  154(4)  1855-1870
Global gene profiling of laser-captured pollen mother cells indicates molecular pathways and gene subfamilies involved in rice meiosis.
Yang,Y.H., Zhang,F.M. and Ge,S.
BMC Evol. Biol. 2009  9  206
Evolutionary rate patterns of the Gibberellin pathway genes
Yamaguchi S.
Annual Review of Plant Biology 2008  59  225-51
Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation.
Dai M, Zhao Y, Ma Q, Hu Y, Hedden P, Zhang Q, Zhou DX.
Plant Physiol. 2007  144(1)  121-33
The rice YABBY1 gene is involved in the feedback regulation of gibberellin metabolism.
Sakamoto, T., K. Miura, H. Itoh, T. Tatsumi, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, K. Ishiyama, M. Kobayashi, G.K. Agrawal, S. Takeda, K. Abe, A. Miyao, H. Hirochika, H. Kitano, M. Ashikari and M. Matsuoka
Plant Physiol. 2004  134  1642-1653
An overview of gibberellin metabolism enzyme genes and their related mutants in rice.
Murai, M., H. Bahadur KC, T. Yoshida
Breeding Science 2003  53  237-244
Effect of the dwarfing gene d18-k on cool tolerance at booting stage under the genetic background of an extremely cool-tolerant rice line Norin-PL11, and its relation with water depth.
Kaneko, M., H. Itoh, Y. Inukai, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, M. Ashikari and M. Matsuoka
Plant J. 2003  35 (1)  104-115
Where do gibberellin biosynthesis and gibberellin signaling occur in rice plants?
Itoh, H., M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, T. Kayano, H. Tanaka, M. Ashikari and M. Matsuoka
Breeding Science 2002  52  215-218
Modification of rice plant height by suppressing the height-controlling gene, D18, in rice.
Itoh,H., Ueguchi-Tanaka,M., Sentoku,N., Kitano,H., Matsuoka,M. and Kobayashi,M.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001  98(15)  8909-8914
Cloning and functional analysis of two gibberellin 3 beta -hydroxylase genes that are differently expressed during the growth of rice.
Murai, M., N. Shinbashi, S. Sato, K. Sato, H. Araki and M. Ehara
Breeding Science 1995  45  7-14.
Effect of dwarfing gene from Dee-geo-woo-gen on culm and internode lengths, and its response to fertilizer in rice.
Murai, M., S. Hirose, S. Sato
Japan. J. Breed. 1992  42  811-823
Effect of the dwarfing gene from Dee-geo-woo-gen and others on cool temperature tolerance at flowering stage in rice.
Murai, M., S. Hirose, N. Suzuki, M. Yamane, S. Sato
Japan. J. Breed. 1992  42  91-102
Effects of the dwarfing gene from Dee-geo-woo-gen and three others on high temperature tolerance at flowering.
Yoshimura, A., O. Ideta, T. Matsumoto, T. Tsunematsu and N. Iwata
Japan. J. Breed. 1992  42(Suppl. 1)  168-169.
Integration of conventional and RFLP linkage maps in rice. 1. On chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Murai, M., S. Hirose, A. Kusutani, N. Shinbashi, Y. Nishikawa
Japan. J. Breed. 1991  41  581-593
Relation between cool temperature damage at booting stage and water depth in dwarf lines of rice.
Murai, M., S. Hirose, S. Sato, M. Takeda
Japan. J. Breed. 1991  41  241-254
Effects of dwarfing genes from Dee-geo-woo-gen and other varieties on cool temperature tolerance at booting stage in rice.
Iwata, N.
Exploitation and identification of rice gene resources. N. Iwata, ed. (Report of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research). 1990    10-19.
Exploitation and identification on chloroplast mutants.
Suge, H.
Japan. J. Breed. 1990  40(1)  21-31.
Survey of endogenous gibberellins in rice lines having different dwarfing genes and in autoteraploid lines.
Iwata, N., H. Satoh and A. Yoshimura
Bull. Inst. Trop. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 1989  12  1-9.
Linkage studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Linkage map of chromosome 3.
Iwata, N. and T. Omura
Jpn. J. Genet. 1984  59(3)  199-204.
Studies on the trisomics in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). VI. An accomplishment of a trisomic series in japonica rice plants.
Kinoshita, T.
In Biology of Rice. S. Tsunoda and N. Takahashi eds. JSSP/Elsevier, Tokyo. 1984    187-274.
Gene analysis and linkage map.
Yoshimura, A., N. Iwata and T. Omura
Japan. J. Breed. 1982  32(4)  323-332.
Linkage analysis by reciprocal translocation method in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). III. Marker genes located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7.
Iwata, N., H. Satoh and T. Omura
Japan. J. Breed. 1979  29(Suppl. 1)  234-235.
Linkage studies in rice. On some genes described newly which belonging to the third linkage group.
Shinbashi, N., T. Kinoshita, M. Takahashi and K. Hasebe
Mem. Fac. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 1976  10(1)  69-75.
Genetic aspects of two dwarfs Hosetsu-dwarf and Kotake-tamanishiki, and their character expressions.-Genetical studies on rice plant. LXVI-.
Kinoshita, T., M. Takahashi, K. Mori and N. Shinbashi
Res. Bull. Univ. Farm Hokkaido Univ. 1974  19  64-75.
Character expression and inheritance mode of three kinds of dwarf rice. -Genetical studies on rice plant, LXI-.
TextPresso Search Search textpresso for D18 ( Recent references may be retrievable, but without any warranty )
DB Reference
Gramene ID GR:0020076,GR0061382
Gene Ontology response to ionizing radiation( GO:0010212 )
response to salt stress( GO:0009651 )
response to cold( GO:0009409 )
multicellular organismal development( GO:0007275 )
response to abiotic stimulus( GO:0009628 )
gibberellin metabolic process( GO:0009685 )
gibberellin biosynthetic process( GO:0009686 )
unidimensional cell growth( GO:0009826 )
gibberellin 3-beta-dioxygenase activity( GO:0016707 )
hormone biosynthetic process( GO:0042446 )
response to brassinosteroid stimulus( GO:0009741 )
brassinosteroid mediated signaling( GO:0009742 )
Trait Ontology flower anatomy and morphology trait( TO:0000499 )
leaf shape( TO:0000492 )
leaf lamina color( TO:0000299 )
plant height( TO:0000207 )
panicle length( TO:0000040 )
stem length( TO:0000576 )
gibberellic acid content( TO:0002675 )
gibberellic acid sensitivity( TO:0000166 )
brassinosteroid sensitivity( TO:0002677 )
plant growth hormone sensitivity( TO:0000401 )
cold tolerance( TO:0000303 )
salt tolerance( TO:0006001 )
radiation response trait( TO:0000161 )
Plant Ontology vascular leaf( PO:0009025 )
flower( PO:0009046 )
whole plant( PO:0000003 )
stem( PO:0009047 )
inflorescence( PO:0009049 )
Related Strains
Stocks for Genes 1
F Lines 16
Backcross Fn Generation (T65) 2
Phenotype images
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Photo from A. Yoshimura
Last updated
Jan 11, 2024