3. Gene symbols for resistance to insects

G.S. Khush1 and R. Ikeda2

1) International Rice Research Institute, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines

2) Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Ohmagari, Akita-ken, 014-01 Japan

Genetic studies on resistance to insects have been conducted mainly at IRRI. Seven genes for resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) have been identified. Ahtwal et al. (197 1) identified Bph-1 and bph-2 at IRRI in cultivars Mudgo and and ASD-7, respectively. Bph-3 and bph-4 were identified by Laksminarayana and Khush (1977) in cultivars Rathu Heenati and Babawee, respectively. Khush et al. (1985) identified bph-5 in ARC 10550 using a Bangladesh population of BPH. Bph-6 and bph-7 were identified by Kabir and Khush (1987) in cultivars Swarnalata and T12, respectively, also using a Bangladesh population of BPH.

Seven genes for resistance to green leafhopper (GLH) have also been identified. Athwal et al. (1971) identified Glh-1, Glh-2 and Glh-3 at IRRI in cultivars Pankhari 203, ASD7 and IR8, respectively. Two genes, glh-4 and Glh-5 were identified by Siwi and Khush (1977) also at IRRI in cultivars Ptb 8 and ASD8, respectively. Glh-6 and Glh-7 were identified by Rezaul Karim and Pathak (1982) using Bangladesh population of GLH.

Five genes are known for resistance to whitebacked planthopper and all were identified at IRRI. Wbph-1 was identified by Sidhu et al. (1979) at IRRI in cultivar N22. Angeles et al. (1981) identified Wbph-2 in ARC 10239. Hernandez and Khush (1981) identified Wbph-3 in ADR 52 and wbph-4 in Podiwi-A8. Wbph-5 was identified by Wu and Khush (1985) in N'Diang Marie.

Three genes for resistance to zigzag leafhopper (ZLH) were identified at IRRI by Angeles et al. (1986). Zlh-1 was identified in Rathu Heenati, Zlh-2 in Ptb 21 and Zlh-3 in Ptb 33.

Several studies on the genetics of resistance to gall midge have been reported. Shastry et al. (1972) postulated the existence of 3 complementary recessive genes and a dominant inhibitory gene for resistance. Satyanarayaniah and Reddy (1972) also investigated the inheritance of resistance in the same cross and at the same location as Shastry et al. (1972) and clearly showed that one dominant gene conferred resistance in the cultivar W1263. Chaudhary et al. (1986) also confirmed that a single dominant gene conveys resistance to gall midge in W 126 3 and it was designated as Gm-1. Another cultivar, Surekha, was found to have a different dominant gene for resistance which was designated Gm-2. Several other reports on the multigenic control of gall midge resistance (Shastry et al. 1972; Sastry and Prakasarao 1973; Sastry et al. 1984) need to be verified.

Table 1. Genes for resistance to rice insects
______________________________________________________________
Genes for  Cultivar             Reference
Resistance
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Brown planthopper (BPH)

Bph-1      Mudgo          Athwal et al.  (1971)
bph-2      ASD 7          Athwal et al.  (1971)
Bph-3      Rathu Heenati  Lakshminarayana and Khush, (1977)
bph-4      Babawee        Lakshminarayana and Khush, (1977)
bph-5      ARC 10550      Khush et al. (1985)
Bph-6      Swarnalata     Kabir and Khush (1987)
bph-7      T12            Kabir and Khush (1987)

Green leafhopper (GLH)

Glh-1      Pankhari 203   Athwal et al.  (1971)
Glh-2      ASD 7          Athwal et al.  (1971)
Glh-3      IR8            Athwal et al.  (1971)
glh-4      Ptb 8          Siwi and Khush (1977)
Glh-5      ASD 8          Siwi and Khush (1977)
Glh-6      TAPL 796       Rezaul Karim and Pathak (1982)
Glh-7     Maddai Karuppan Rezaul Karim and Pathak (1982)

Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH)

Wph-1      N22            Sidhu et al. (1979)
Wph-2      ARC 10239      Angeles et al.  (1981)
Wph-3      ADR 52         Hernandez and Khush (1981)
wph-4      Podiwi-A8      Hernandez and Khush (1981)
Wph-5      N-Diang Marie  Wu and Khush (1985)

Zigzag leafhopper  (ZLH)

Zlh-I      Rathu Heenati  Angeles et al.  (1986)
Zlh-2      Ptb 21         Angeles et al.  (1986)
Zlh-3      Ptb 33         Angeles et al.  (1986)

Gall midge

Gm-1       W 1263         Chaudhary et al. (1986)
Gm-2       Surekha        Chaudhary et al. (1986)
______________________________________________________________
Wph=Wbph

References

Angeles, E. R., G. S. Khush and E. A. Heinrichs, 1981. New genes for resistance to whitebacked planthoppers in rice. Crop Sci. 21: 47-50.

Angeles, E. R., G. S. Khush and E. A. Heinrichs, 1986. Inheritance of resistance to planthoppers and leafhoppers in rice. In Rice Genetics, pp. 536-549. IRRI, Manila.

Athwal, D. S., M. D. Pathak, E. H. Bacalangco and C.D. Pura, 1971. Genetics of resistance to brown planthoppers and green leafhoppers in Oryza sativa L. Crop Sci. 11: 747-750.

Chaudhary, B. P., P. S. Srivastava, M. N. Shrivastava and G. S. Khush, 1986. Inheritance of resistance to gall midge in some cultivars of rice. In Rice Genetics, pp. 523-528. IRRI, Manila.

Hernandez, J. E. and G. S. Khush, 1981. Genetics of resistance to whitebacked planthopper in some rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Oryza 18: 44-50.

Kabir, M. A. and G. S. Khush, 1987. Genetic analysis of resistance to brown planthopper in rice, Oryza sativa L. Plant Breeding (in press)

Khush, G. S., A. N. M. Rezaul Karim and E. R. Angeles, 1985. Genetics of resistance of rice cultivar ARC 10550 to Bangladesh brown planthoopper biotype. J. Genet. 64(2-3): 121- 125.

Lakshminarayana, A. and G. S. Khush, 1977. New nenes for resistance to brown planthopper in rice. Crop Sci. 17: 96-100.

Rezaul Karim, A. N. M. and M. D. Pathak, 1982. New genes for resistance to green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant) in rice, Oryza sativa L. Crop Prot. 1: 473-490.

Sastry, M. V. S. and P. S. Prakasa Rao, 1973. Inheritance of resistance to rice gall midge (Pachydiplosis oryzae Wood-Mason). Current Sci. 42(18): 652-653.

Sastry, M. V. S., U. Prasad Rao, M. B. Kalode and Mangal Sain, 1984. Inheritance of resistance to gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) in rice. Indian J. Genet. Plant Breed. 44(2): 325-328.

Satyanarayaniah, K. and M. V. Reddy, 1972. Inheritance of resistance to insect gall midge (Pachydiplosis oryzae Wood-Mason). Andhra Agric. J. 19(1): 1-8.

Shastry, S. V. S., W. H. Freeman, D. V. Seshu, P. Israel and J. K. Roy, 1972. Host plant resistance to rice gall midge. In Rice Breeding, p. 353-366. IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila.

Sidhu, G. S., G. S. Khush and F. G. Medrano, 1979. A dominant gene in rice for resisance to whitebacked planthopper and its relationship to other plant characteristics. Euphytica 28: 227-232.

Siwi, B. H. and G. S. Khush, 1977. New genes for resistance to green leafhopper in rice. Crop Sci. 17: 17-20.

Wu, C. F. and G. S. Khush, 1985. A new dominant gene for resistance to whitebacked planthopper in rice. Crop Sci. 25: 505-509.