38. Detection of QTLs associated with antibiosis to green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, in four Indica rice varieties

Plant Breeding Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812–8581 Japan

The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler is a serious insect pest of rice in East Asia. The leafhopper causes either direct damage to the rice plant by sucking the sap or by transmitting several viral diseases. Germplasm resistant to GRH has been found in Indica varieties such as IR24 and DV85. To date, four resistance genes, Grh1, Grh2, Grh3 and Grh4, have been identified (Saka et al. 1997; Fukuta et al. 1998; Yazawa et al. 1998; Tamura et al. 1999).

To identify new resistance genes to GRH, four Indica varieties with GRH resistance were screened by antibiosis test. IR20965-26-1-2, Gadur and Garia were highly resistant and ASD7 was moderately resistant. The resistant varieties were crossed with a susceptible Japonica variety Taichung65. The F2 individuals derived from the respective crosses were evaluated by antibiosis test at the seedling stage, to find QTLs responsible for resistance to GRH. Seedlings were infested with 7-10 first- or second-instar nymphs from an insect population collected in Fukuoka Prefecture in 1991. Antibiosis was scored as nymph mortality four days after infestation. After evaluation, the plants were transplanted in the field. Leaf samples were collected and the genomic DNA was extracted for RFLP genotyping. A total of 88 RFLP markers scattered in the rice genome were used for constructing RFLP linkage map of respective crosses. QTL analyses for resistance to GRH were conducted using MAPMAKER/QTL v1.1, with a threshold of LOD>2.0.

The resistant varieties, IR20965-26-1-2 and Gadur showed high nymph mortality, nearly 100%, whereas ASD7 showed unstable resistance, 50-100% nymph mortality. Taichung65 was susceptible, without nymph mortality. Frequency distribution of nymph mortality in each F2 population was continuous and did not represent any kind of discrete segregation. A total of eight QTLs for antibiosis were detected on six different loci in four cross combinations (Table 1). Each QTL explained 25.2% to 70.0% of the phenotypic variance. All Indica alleles on the QTLs contributed to the increase in nymph mortality. Six of the eight QTLs corresponded with the genes resistant to GRH based on chromosome location. Four QTLs,

qGRH-5, qGRH-6, qGRH-11 and qGRH-3, appeared to coincide with Grh1, Grh3, Grh2 and Grh4, respectively (Saka et al. 1997; Fukuta et al. 1998; Yazawa et al. 1998; Tamura et al. 1999).

The four Indica varieties carried a few genes resistant to GRH. ASD7 had both Grh1 and Grh3. Although the resistance of ASD7 was moderate, the F2 segregants carrying both Grh1 and Grh3 were highly resistant. The highly resistant varieties, Gadur and Garia, carried the same resistance genes, Grh2 and Grh4. The high level of resistance of IR20965-26-1-2 due to both qGRH-4 and qGRH-2 was noted because there has been no report on GRH resistance gene on chromosome 2. qGRH-4 was located near the gene resistant to green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens Distant (Sebastian et al. 1995). Development of isogenic lines for qGRH-4 and qGRH-2 is necessary to precisely analyze the genetic basis of GRH resistance of IR20965-26-1-2.


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