12. A new dominant dwarfing gene in rice
Hee-Jong KOH and Mun-Hue HEU
Coll. of Agric. & Life Sci., Seoul Nat'l Univ., Suwon, 441-744 Korea
Fifty dwarfing genes have been reported in rice (Kinoshita and Takahashi 1991). Among them, D-53 was the only dominant gene (Iwata et al. 1977). We identified another dominant dwarfing gene induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea from a Korean Japonica cultivar, Hwachung.
Some agronomic characteristics of the dwarf Hwachung line and its F1 plants with Hwachung are shown in Tables 1 and 2. All internodes and panicle were reduced in length to about 70% of values of the original cultivar, and the grain were smaller and rounder. The F1 plants had the same phenotype as the dwarf line, showing that the dwarfness was dominant over the tall stature. Segregation patterns of culm length in F2 populations between Hwachung and its dwarf line, and between a tall and a dwarf plant derived from their heterozygous population are shown in Fig. 1. Short and tall plants segregated in a 3:1 ratio. This indicates that the dwarfness is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we have designated D-h.
Table 1. Heading date, panicle and internode lengths of dwarf-Hwachung line, original cultivar, Hwachung, and their F1 ============================================================================== Heading Panicle Length of internode (cm) date length (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 Total Hwachung (A) Aug. 23 18.9 34.7 21.4 17.1 13.5 5.6 92.3 Dwarf-Hwa. line (B) Aug. 20 14.0 26.7 16.4 12.0 8.0 3.8 66.9 F1 (C) Aug. 21 14.8 29.5 17.7 13.2 9.7 3.2 73.3 Difference (A vs B & C) * ** ** ** ** ** * ** (B vs C) ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns Ratio of B/A (%) - 74.1 76.9 76.6 70.2 59.3 67.9 72.5 ==============================================================================
Table2. Grain dimension of dwarf-Hwachung line, original cultivar, Hwachung, and their F1 ============================================================================== Grain dimension of brown rice ============================= 1000-a) Length Width Thick. L/W grains wt. ============================================================================== -(mm)- (g) Hwachung (A) 0.502 0.292 0.210 1.72 24.8 Dwarf-Hwa. line (B) 0.396 0.273 0.188 1.45 17.4 F1 (C) 0.399 0.272 0.193 1.47 18.9 Difference (A vs B & C) ** ** ** ** ** (B vs C) ns ns ns ns ns ============================================================================== a) rough rice
For comparison, line FL282 carrying gene D-53 was crossed with Hwachung and its dwarf line. As shown in Fig. 2, the F2 ratio for short and tall plants was 3:1 in the cross FL282 x Hwachung. In FL282 X dwarf-Hwachung and its reciprocal cross, however, the F2 plants showed continuous variations and a few of them had the normal height of Hwachung (these may be assumed to be 1/16 of total plants). This suggests that genes D-53 and D-h are non-allelic and independent of each other.
The dwarf Hwachung line has a good plant type with short-compact panicles and small-round grain. Culm and panicle lengths showed high correlations in F2 populations, suggesting pleiotropic effects of gene D-h on both characters (Table 3).
We thank Dr. Nobuo Iwata for providing line FL282 with D-53.
Table 3. Correlation coefficients between culm and panicle length in F2's of dwarf-Hwachung cross (all significant at 1% level) ============================================== Cross combination rph rg DF ============================================== Hwachung/Dwarf-Hwa. 0.72 0.80 523 Tall-Hwa./ " 0.80 0.95 501 Dwarf-Hwa./Tall-Hwa. 0.73 0.86 517 ============================================== rph and rg: phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient
Iwata, N., H. Satoh and T. Omura. 1977. Linkage studies in rice. Linkage groups for 6 genes newly described. Japan J. Breed. 27 Suppl. 1: 250-251.
Kinoshita, T. and M. Takahashi. 1991. The 100th report of genetical studies on rice plant -- linkage studies and future prospects. J. Fac. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 65(1): 1-61.