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Life / Eukarya / Excavata / Discicristata / Euglenozoa

Euglenophyceae (Euglena, Eutreptiella, Phacus, Peranema, Petalomonas etc.)
Diplonemea (Diplonema, Rhynchopus)
Kinetoplastea (Bodo, Rhynchomonas, Icthyobodo, Leismannia, Trypanosoma etc.)

  • Maslov, D.A. et al. (1999) Phylogenetic affinities of Diplonema within the Euglenozoa as inferred from the SSU rRNA gene and partial COI protein sequences. Protist 150: 33-42.
  • Simpson, A.G.B., Stevens, J. R. & Luke&s;, J. (2006) The evolution and diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates. Trends in Parasitology 22: 168-174.
  • Simpson, A.G.B. & Roger, A.J. (2004) Protein phylogenies robustly resolve the deep-level relationships within Euglenozoa. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 201-212.

Euglenozoans are unicellular flagellates. The most species are phagotrophic or osmotrophic, but a part of the Euglenophyceae (e.g. Euglena) is photosynthetic by green chloroplasts via secondary symbiosis with a green plant. The euglenozoans are widespread in freshwater and marine, and some species are parasitic in animals, land plants and amoebae. In the parasitic species, trypanosomes (Kinetoplastea) are seriously damage human and domestic animals (e.g. sleeping sickness and Chagas disease by Trypanosoma, leishmaniasis by Leishmania). The bodonids (e.g. Bodo, Neobodo; Kinetoplastea) is one of the most common flagellate group in soil and aquatic environments. Euglena (Euglenophyceae) is also a common freshwater phytoplankton and sometimes used for laboratory.

The cell possesses apical depression from which two heterodynamic flagella emerge (sometimes one flagellum is reduced). The flagellum is accompanied with a praxial rod and (sometimes) non-tubular mastigonemes. There are three microtubular roots, one of which supports the cytostome. The cells are basically naked, but some euglenophyceans possess lorica. The cytoskeletal microtubules or pellicler strips are developed beneath the cell membrane. Mitochondrial cristae are discoid. The differentiation of mitochondrial genome is reported (Roy, J. et al. 2007. Protist 58: 385-96). Chromosomes are condensed even in interface. Mitosis is closed. No metaphase plate is detected. Asexual reproduction by means of binary fission. Sexual reproduction is unknown.

1: Bodo (Kinetoplastea, NIES-1439). 2: Phacus (Euglenophyceae). 3: Rhynchomonas (Kinetoplastea). 4: Ploeotia (Euglenophyceae). 5: Eutreptiella (Euglenophyceae, NIES-381).