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Life / Eukarya / Plantae / Viridiplantae / Embryophyta (land plants)
Marchantiophyta (liverworts)
Bryophyta (mosses) (Physcomitrella etc.)
Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
Lycopodiopsida (clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts etc.)
Psilotopsida (Psilotum, Ophioglossum etc.)
Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida) (horsetails etc.)
Marattiopsida (Angiopteris etc.)
Polypodiopsida (leptosporangiate ferns)
Cycadales (Cycas, Zamia etc.)
Ginkgoales (Ginkgo biloba)
Pinales (conifers) (cedars, cypresses, firs, larches, pines, redwoods, spruces etc.)
Gnetales (Gnetum, Welwitschia, Ephedra)
Angiosperms (rice, wheat, barley, Arabidopsis, Lotus, tomato, morning glory, chrysanthemum etc.)
1. Tracheophyta (vascular plants)
  2. Lycopodiophytina
  3. Pteridophytina
  4. Spermatophytina (seed plants)
    5. Gymnospermae (gymnosperms)

Embryophytes (land plants) include most familiar plants such as trees, grasses, herbs, ferns and mosses. They are very important organisms to supply the most part of production on land. All land plants are complex multicellular organisms with tissue differentiation. Sizes are varied, from a few millimeters to a hundred meters. Most species are terrestrial, but there are many secondarily aquatic embryophytes. Although some colorless heterotrophic species exist (e.g. Rafflesia), land plants are mostly photosynthetic. The embryophytes support directly our life as foods (rice, corn, wheat, potato etc.), luxuries (tobacco, coffe, papper etc.), feeds (timothy, alfalfa etc.), material (cotton, pine etc.), drugs (opium, digitalis@etc.).

All land plants show complex multicellular organization with tissue differentiation. Tracherophytes (vascular plants) possess root and shoot composed of epidermal system, vascular system and fundamental tissue system. The land plants exhibit apical growth and (in some vascular plants) lateral growth. The land plants basically show alternation between the haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte. In the 'bryophytes' normal plant is gametophyte to which the small sporophyte attach. Small gametophyte (prothallus) and large sporophyte are basically independent each other in 'pteridophytes'. Seed plants have very reduced gametophyte depending on sporophyte. Because in all land plants fertilized egg developps depending on mother gametophyte or sporophyte, they are called as 'embryo'-phytes. The 'bryophytes' and 'pteridophytes' reproduce by means of spores, but seed plants are dispersed by seeds. Asexual reproductions by bulbs, tuber and fragmentation are common. Sexual reproduction is oogamy. Male gamete is biflagellate or multiflagellate sperm in 'bryophytes', 'pteridophytes', cycads and Ginkgo, but it is non-flagellate sperm cell in other seed plants.

1: moss (Bryophyta). 2: Selaginella (Lycopodiopsida). 3: Dryopteris (Polypodiopsida). 4: Thymus (Angiosperms).